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TypeTitleAuthorsMonthYearVolumeIssueAvailability
ArticleEditorialKeith FoxOctober2021332Subscribers only
ArticleHow the Laws of Nature were NaturalisedJeffrey KoperskiOctober2021332Subscribers only
ArticleFrom Deterrence to Abhorrence: How the Catholic Church Has Changed Its Mind on Nuclear WeaponsJonathan W. ChappellOctober2021332Subscribers only
ArticleSecondary school students’ perceptions of scientific and religious positions on miraclesBerry Billingsley, Keith S. Taber, Mehdi NassajiOctober2021332Subscribers only
SupplementarySecondary school students’ perceptions of scientific and religious positions on miraclesBerry Billingsley, Keith S. Taber, Mehdi NassajiOctober2021332Subscribers only
Essay reviewChronology in Genesis 1-2 and the book Genesis 1-4 by C. John CollinsPaul MarstonOctober2021332Subscribers only
CorrespondenceResponse to William HorstStom AmbroseOctober2021332Subscribers only
CorrespondenceResponse to Tom AmbroseWilliam HorstOctober2021332Subscribers only
Book reviewChristianity and the New EugenicsCalum MacKellar, (D. Gareth Jones)October2021332Subscribers only
Book reviewPhysico-theology: Religion and Science in Europe, 1650-1750Ann Blair and Kaspar von Greyerz (eds.), (Nick Spencer)October2021332Subscribers only
Book reviewEcoTheology: A Christian ConversationKiara A. Jorgenson and Alan G. Padgett (eds.), (Dr Ruth Valerio )October2021332Subscribers only
Book reviewBede and the Cosmos: Theology and Nature in the Eighth CenturyEoghan Ahern, (James Hannam)October2021332Subscribers only
Book reviewDinosaurs, volcanoes and Holy Writ: a boy turned-scientist journeys from fundamentalism to faithJames L. Hayward, (Hugh Rollinson)October2021332Subscribers only
Book reviewOriginal Sin and the Fall: Five ViewsJ. B. Stump and Chad Meister (eds.), (The Revd Dr Ernest Lucas)October2021332Subscribers only
Book reviewOn The Origin of Consciousness: An Exploration through the Lens of the Christian Conception of God and CreationScott D. G. Ventureyra, (Carl Thomas)October2021332Subscribers only
Book reviewCosmology Without God?: The Problematic Theology Inherent in Modern CosmologyDavid Alcalde, (Dr Kevin Ralley)October2021332Subscribers only
Book reviewCan we believe in people? Human Significance in an Interconnected CosmosStephen R. L. Clark, (Mirjam Schilling)October2021332Subscribers only
Book reviewBioethics and the Character of Human LifeGilbert Meilaender, (John Bryant)October2021332Subscribers only
Book reviewScience without God? Rethinking the History of Scientific NaturalismPeter Harrison & Jon H. Roberts (eds.), (Nathan Bossoh)October2021332Subscribers only
Book reviewThrough a Glass, Darkly: Journeys through Science, Faith & Doubt - a memoirAlister McGrath, (Steph Bevan)October2021332Subscribers only
Book reviewOrthodox Christianity and Modern Science: Tensions, Ambiguities, PotentialV. N. Makrides, G. E. Woloschak (eds.), (Elizabeth Theokritoff)October2021332Subscribers only
Book reviewRamified Natural Theology in Science and Religion: Moving Forward from Natural TheologyRodney Holder, (Shaun Henson)October2021332Subscribers only
Book reviewWhat Good is God: Crises. Faith. and resilience.Roger Abbott and Robert White, (John Swinton)October2021332Subscribers only
Book reviewThe Mind of God and the Works of Nature: Laws and Powers in Naturalism, Platonism, and Classical TheismJames Orr, (Steven Horst)October2021332Subscribers only
Book reviewA Theory of Everything (That Matters): A Short Guideto Einstein, Relativity and the Future of FaithAlister McGrath, (Jonathan Lyonhart)April2021331Subscribers only
Book reviewThe Territories of Human Reason: Science and Theology in an Age of Multiple Rationalities to Einstein, Relativity and the Future of FaithAlister E. McGrath, (Tim Henstock)April2021331Subscribers only
Book reviewNeurology and Religion Theology in an Age of Multiple Rationalities to Einstein, Relativity and the Future of FaithAlasdair Coles and Joanna Collicutt, (Malcolm Jeeves)April2021331Subscribers only
Book reviewGod, Stephen Hawking and the Multiverse: What Hawking Said and Why it MattersDavid Hutchings and David Wilkinson, (Steve Bishop)April2021331Subscribers only
Book reviewSecularity and Science: What Scientists Around the World Really Think about ReligionElaine H. Ecklund, David R. Johnson, Brandon Vaidyanathan, Kirstin R. W. Matthews, Steven W. Lewis, Robert A. Thomson Jr., and Di DiApril2021331Subscribers only
Book reviewGenesis, Science and the Beginning. Evaluating Interpretations of Genesis One on the Age of the EarthBenjamin D. Smith Jr., (Peter J. M. van der Burgt)April2021331Subscribers only
Book reviewWhy Free Will Is RealChristian List, (Rob Heather)April2021331Subscribers only
Book reviewScience, Religions and the Protestant Tradition: Retracing the Origins of ConflictJames C. Ungureanu, (Nick Spencer)April2021331Subscribers only
Book reviewTime to Act: A Resource Book by the Christians in Extinction RebellionJeremy Williams, (Matt Patterson)April2021331Subscribers only
Book reviewStewards of Eden: What Scripture Says About the Environment and Why It MattersSandra L. Richter, (Abigail Patterson)April2021331Subscribers only
Book reviewCaves, Coprolites and Catastrophes : The Story of Pioneering Geologist and Fossil-Hunter William BucklandAllan Chapman, (Robert (Bob) White)April2021331Subscribers only
Book reviewGenesis 1 - 11Rebecca S. Watson, (Ivan Haigh)April2021331Subscribers only
Book reviewSarah’s Laughter – Doubt, Tears, and Christian HopeVinoth Ramachandra, (Denis Alexander)April2021331Subscribers only
Book reviewScience and Religion in Education: (Contemporary Trends and Issues in Science Education)Berry Billingsley, Keith Chappell and Michael Reiss (eds.), (Stephen Thompson)April2021331Subscribers only
Book reviewReformed Theology and Evolutionary TheoryGijsbert van den Brink, (Nathan R. James)April2021331Subscribers only
ArticleTheological Implications of Simon Conway Morris’s Portrayal of Convergent Biological EvolutionAndrew JacksonApril2021331Subscribers only
CorrespondenceA response to Andrew JacksonSimon Conway MorrisApril2021331Subscribers only
CorrespondenceResponse to Simon Conway MorrisAndrew JacksonApril2021331Subscribers only
CorrespondenceA response to John Jefferson Davis’s article ‘The Spirit and the Glory’s Banishment from the Material World’Andrew JacksonApril2021331Subscribers only
ArticleEditorial - Following the ScienceKeith FoxOctober2020322Subscribers only
ArticleDeath through Adam: Two Different Senses in Two Different Pauline LettersWilliam HorstOctober2020322Subscribers only
ArticleThe Spirit and the Glory's Banishment from the Material World: Reimagining Divine Immanence in the Light of Later Modern ScienceJohn Jefferson DavisOctober2020322Subscribers only
ArticleThe 'Marks of God's Wisdom' in Comenius's Panorthosia: A Biblical Commonplace at the Foundations of Modern ScienceChristopher Barina KaiserOctober2020322Subscribers only
SupplementaryThe 'Marks of God's Wisdom' in Comenius's Panorthosia: A Biblical Commonplace at the Foundations of Modern ScienceChristopher Barina KaiserOctober2020322Subscribers only
ArticleObituary - Sir John Houghton FRSRobert WhiteOctober2020322Subscribers only
CorrespondenceWelcoming the Mechanoids: A response to 'The Robot's Redemption'Gavin MerrifieldOctober2020322Subscribers only
CorrespondenceA Response to 'Welcoming the Mechanoids': Theological Anthropocentrism and the Freedom to LoveAlan McGillOctober2020322Subscribers only
CorrespondenceComment on article by John MitchellPeter J BusseyOctober2020322Subscribers only
Book reviewScience and Humanity: A Humane Philosophy of Science and ReligionAndrew Steane (Joshua Fountain)October2020322Subscribers only
Book reviewScience and Christian EthicsPaul Scherz (John Bryant)October2020322Subscribers only
Book reviewReligion Explained?: The Cognitive Science of Religion after Twenty-five YearsLuther H. Martin & Donald Wiebe (Joanna Collicutt)October2020322Subscribers only
Book reviewStudying the Image: Critical Issues in Anthropology for ChristiansEloise Meneses (Daniel Lee Hill)October2020322Subscribers only
Book reviewFaith , Hope, and Love in the Technological SocietyFranz A. Foltz, Frederick A. Foltz (Todd Kantchev)October2020322Subscribers only
Book reviewOur Common Cosmos: Exploring the Future of Theology, Human Culture and Space SciencesZoë Lehmann Imfeld and Andreas Losch (eds.) (Robert Bishop)October2020322Subscribers only
Book reviewOn Animals vol. 2 Theological Ethics - 2019David L. Clough (Meric Srokosz)October2020322Subscribers only
Book reviewTheistic Evolution: A Scientific, Philosophical, and Theological CritiqueJ. P. Moreland, Wayne Grudem, Christopher Shaw, Stephen C. Meyer (eds.) (Keith Fox)October2020322Subscribers only
Book reviewRethinking History, Science and Religion: An Exploration of Conflict and the ComplexityBernard Lightman (ed.) (Nick Spencer)October2020322Subscribers only
Book reviewDivine Action and the Human MindSarah Lane Ritchie (Roger Trigg)October2020322Subscribers only
Book reviewCosmology in Theological Perspective - Understanding our Place in the UniverseOlli-Pekka Vainio (Paul Wraight)October2020322Subscribers only
Book reviewAstrobiology and Humanism: Conversations on Science, Philosophy, and TheologyJulian Chela-Flores (Ted Peters)October2020322Subscribers only
Book reviewOutgrowing God - A Beginner's GuideRichard Dawkins (John Hastings)October2020322Subscribers only
Book reviewOutgrowing Dawkins - God for Grown-UpsRupert Shortt (John Hastings)October2020322Subscribers only
Book reviewBiotechnology, Human Nature, and Christian EthicsGerald McKenny (Alexander Massmann)October2020322Subscribers only
DebateA response to Lamoureux's replyAndrew LokeOctober2020322Subscribers only
DebateA reply to Dr Andrew Loke's letterDenis O. LamoureuxOctober2020322Subscribers only
ArticleEditorialPaul EwartApril2020321Subscribers only
ArticleNatural Law - 'God's Law in our Hearts'

Abstract

Human beings possess a sense of basic morality that is found to be similar in many cultures. It has often been termed 'Natural Law', and St Paul in his Epistles referred to even the gentiles as having 'God's Law in their hearts'. C. S. Lewis gave a broad basic justification for the existence of Natural Law, emphasising that a society that loses this will experience moral decay. The standard western presentation of the subject was given in the thirteenth century by Thomas Aquinas, and is used as the basis for our present discussion, amplified by some recent teachings of Pope John Paul II. There are two major challenges to these ideas. One concerns the objective validity of moral law of any kind. An examination of this question leads to the familiar conclusion that God's authority is required as a basis for absolute moral values and obligations. The second major challenge comes from the modern scientific picture of human beings emerging from an amoral animal kingdom - but we are moral beings. The issues that arise here are discussed with reference to evolutionary theory, palaeontology and anthropology. It is suggested that the key questions are resolved best if God acted directly in human history at some point in time, perhaps at the Middle/Upper Palaeolithic transition. Some implications of Natural Law in human affairs are finally examined.

Keywords

Moral value, duty, obligation, human rights, Natural Law, C. S. Lewis, Thomas Aquinas, John Paul II, evolution, palaeontology, culture, anthropology, kibbutz.
PETER J. BUSSEYApril2020321Subscribers only
ArticleThe Robot's Redemption: the Role of Artificial Intelligence in the Salvation of the Cosmos

Abstract

A view of creation as fallen prior to the fall of humanity implies that the non-human portion of the cosmos can exercise freedom of a kind, having in some sense strayed from its original holiness, while, at the experiential level, the reality of innocent suffering wrought by inanimate forces is difficult to reconcile with the will of a benign deity. Against this backdrop, the present paper proposes that artificial decision-making agents would represent a new phase in non-human creation's response to the divine. While these impersonal moral agents may lack any consciousness of God, their ability to select between options in a calculated manner could implicitly accept or reject grace along the lines envisaged by Karl Rahner, who views the fundamental option for or against God as played out in relation to decisions made in relation to created things and persons, not requiring explicit consciousness of the Creator.

Keywords

Artificial intelligence, freedom, moral choices, creation, salvation, consciousness, the Fall, grace, fundamental option, supernatural existential.
ALAN McGILLApril2020321Subscribers only
ArticleWe are probably not Sims

Abstract

In this article, I discuss the current state of the debate around the simulation hypothesis, the idea that the world we inhabit is a computer simulation in or within another universe. Considering recent work from a range of authors, I suggest that statistical arguments in favour of a simulated world are naive and fail to account either for Ockham’s Razor or for alternative existential possibilities besides base reality and a simulation. Most significantly, I observe that it would be computationally impossible in our own universe to simulate a similar cosmos at fine granularity. This implies substantial differences in size and information content between simulating and simulated universes. I argue that this makes serious analysis of the simulation argument extremely difficult. I suggest that Christian theology has no reason to reinvent itself to accommodate simulism; the two should be viewed as mutually exclusive world-views. Further, I note that the existence of a human soul or spirit, or indeed any non-reductionist explanation of human consciousness, could undermine the assumption of substrate independence that simulism requires.

Keywords

Simulation hypothesis, limits of computation, information, Ockham’s Razor, substrate independence, soul, spirit, consciousness.
JOHN B. O. MITCHELLApril2020321Subscribers only
ArticleCan Faith Be Empirical?

Abstract

It is sometimes said that religious belief and empiricism are different or even incompatible ways of believing. However, William James and notable twentieth-century philosophers representing Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam, Judaism and Christianity have argued that there is a high degree of compatibility between religious faith and empiricism. Their analyses suggest that there are three characteristics of empiricism - that an empiricist bases his beliefs on past experience, that he seeks to test his beliefs in future experience, and that he holds his beliefs with a degree of tentativeness in case future experience should uncover evidence against them. The epistemological insights of these philosophers, along with Augustine, show that Christian theology is consistent with empiricism. Indeed, reliance on faith fails to distinguish Christianity from science, and Christian theology is even to a significant extent both verifiable and falsifiable.

Keywords

Empiricism, epistemology, C. S. Lewis, William James, Augustine, Allama Iqbal
MARK J. BOONEApril2020321Subscribers only
Book reviewAstrotheology: Science and Theology Meet Extraterrestrial LifeDavid Wilkinson (Ted Peters (ed.)) (Martinez Hewlett) (Joshua M. Moritz) (Robert John Russell) April2020321Subscribers only
Book reviewIs there purpose in Biology?Simon Kolstoe (Denis Alexander)April2020321Subscribers only
Book reviewPrayer, Middle Knowledge and Divine-Human InteractionPeter May (Kyle D. DiRoberts)April2020321Subscribers only
Book reviewHuxley's Church and Maxwell's demon: From Theistic Science to Naturalistic ScienceNathan Bossoh (Matthew Stanley)April2020321Subscribers only
Book reviewThe Warfare between Science and Religion: The Idea that Wouldn’t DieJames Hannam (Jeff Hardin (ed.)) (Ronald L. Numbers (ed.)) (Ronald A. Binzley (ed.)) April2020321Subscribers only
Book reviewThe Myth of an Anti-Science Church: Galileo, Darwin, Teilhard, Hawking, DawkinsJohn Hedley Brooke (Gerard Verschuuren)April2020321Subscribers only
Book reviewCambridge Elements: The Design Argument AND Cambridge Elements: Cosmological ArgumentsPeter Bussey (Michael Almeida) (Elliott Sober)April2020321Subscribers only
Book reviewGod, Evolution, and Animal Suffering: Theodicy without a FallTim Middleton (Bethany N. Sollereder) April2020321Subscribers only
Book reviewA Climate of Desire: Reconsidering Sex, Christianity, and How We Respond to Climate ChangeMeric Srokosz (Eduardo Sasso)April2020321Subscribers only
Book reviewDimensions of Faith: Understanding Faith through the Lens of Science and ReligionPaul Roberts (Steve Donaldson)April2020321Subscribers only
Book reviewGod's Good Earth: The Case for an Unfallen CreationNathan R. James (Jon Garvey)April2020321Subscribers only
Book reviewCan Science Explain Everything?Ruth M. Bancewicz (John C. Lennox)April2020321Subscribers only
Book reviewMad or God? Jesus: The Healthiest Mind of AllClaire Wilson (Pablo Martinez) (Andrew Sims) April2020321Subscribers only
Book reviewModern Technology and The Human Future. A Christian AppraisalMatthias Gallé (Craig M. Gay)April2020321Subscribers only
Book reviewBlueprint - How DNA makes us who we areDenis Alexander (Robert Plomin)April2020321Subscribers only
ArticleEditorialKeith FoxOctober2019312Subscribers only
ArticleEmbodied and Socially Embedded ‘Self’: Understanding Jesus’s Bodily Resurrection and Believers’ Post Mortem Identity and Continuity

Abstract

Are human beings mere souls with disposable bodies or just physical bodies with no souls? While Cartesian dualism propounded the former, contemporary science promulgates the latter. The purpose of this paper is to engage with these notions and to steer away from such dualistic / reductionist tendencies towards a nonreductive account, to construct an embodied and socially embedded identity of ‘human self’. This paper will argue that Jesus’s post-resurrection self-identity and continuity were constituted by his embodied and socially embedded relationship and hence believers’ post mortem identity and continuity also should be an embodied and socially embedded reality. For this purpose, the author will engage with cognitive neuroscientific understanding and phenomenological consciousness.

Keywords

bodily resurrection, post mortem identity, science-religion dialogue, cognitive neuroscience
DAVID S. MUTHUKUMAROctober2019312Subscribers only
ArticleThe Dissolving Self? Dementia and Identity in Philosophical Theology

Abstract

Dementia has been the focus of significant work in pastoral theology, but has received relatively little attention in (impractical?) philosophical theology. Yet dementia raises acute questions in philosophical theology to which we must give an answer, such as the nature of personhood, death and its encroaching on life, physicality, resurrection and hope, and the like. This paper focuses on questions relating to memory and identity. What does it mean to be a ‘self’? How does that relate to memory and personal narrative? What happens to us, to our identity, when memory, the ability to remember the stories we use to define ourselves, fades? Do the acids of dementia dissolve our very selves? These questions, valid in their own right, are seen in sharp and deeply personal focus in the experience of those who endure dementia. I will outline a particular response to these questions in critical conversation with John Swinton’s practical theology of dementia, and suggest ways in which practical theology and ethics and philosophical theology can engage in mutually enriching conversation.

Keywords

dementia, identity, memory, John Swinton, narrative, time and eternity, agency
ANDREW SLOANEOctober2019312Subscribers only
ArticleUntangling the Cords of Sheol: Dementia and the Eschatology of the Physical Universe

Abstract

Dementia raises important theological questions regarding human identity and hope. In this piece I propose that we understand dementia as an instance of cosmic entropic processes impinging on human neural systems. Theologically, such entropic decay can be seen as death encroaching on life – the cords of Sheol entangling the sufferer’s brain, with devastating consequences. Psalm 88 presents us with a lens through which to reflect on the nature of death encroaching on life, and so the problem that Christian hope needs to address. Resources for dealing with both cosmic entropy and its all-too-human effects can be found in David Wilkinson’s Christian Eschatology and the Physical Universe. He gives an account of space, time and matter that addresses the cosmic futility of entropy, and which can, in turn, ground a meaningful resurrection hope for people with dementia.

Keywords

dementia, entropy, death, Psalm 88, Sheol, eschatology, David Wilkinson, space, time, matter, resurrection
ANDREW SLOANEOctober2019312Subscribers only
ArticleThe Bible and Ancient Science: A Reply to Andrew Loke

Abstract

In his October 2018 Science and Christian Faith paper, Andrew Loke criticizes my view that Scripture has an ancient understanding of the natural world. Rooting his views in the hermeneutics of G.K. Beale, he contends that the Bible has no “scientific errors” and it features what he terms is “unrestricted inerrancy.” To reply, this paper begins with a brief review of cosmology in the ancient Near East. It then turns to Scripture to demonstrate that the Holy Spirit accommodated in revelatory process and allowed the biblical authors to use the science-of-day in ANE as an incidental vessel to deliver inerrant spiritual truths. Next, I criticize the concordist and figurative hermeneutics of Loke and Beale. The paper closes by proposing a view that biblical inerrancy with regard to statements about nature in the Word of God.
DENIS O. LAMOUREUXOctober2019312Subscribers only
Book reviewCan a Scientist Believe in Miracles?Ian Hutchinson (Rodney Holder)October2019312Subscribers only
Book reviewThe Curious Science Quest: Greek adventure: Who were the first scientists?Julia Golding Andrew Briggs Rodger Wagner (Ben Jordan) October2019312Subscribers only
Book reviewFragile World: Ecology and the ChurchWilliam T. Cavanaugh (ed.) (Robert Sluka) October2019312Subscribers only
Book reviewThe Great Mystery: Science, God and the Human Quest for MeaningAlister McGrath (Paul Marston) October2019312Subscribers only
Book reviewCreation ex nihilo: Origins, Development, Contemporary ChallengesGary A. Anderson (ed.) Markus Bockmuehl (ed.) (The Revd Dr Ernest C. Lucas) October2019312Subscribers only
Book reviewThe Evolution of Human WisdomCelia Deane-Drummond (ed.) Agustín Fuentes (ed.) (Marc Cortez) October2019312Subscribers only
Book reviewEnvironmental Attitudes Through TimeR.J. Berry (Revd Margot R Hodson) October2019312Subscribers only
Book reviewIt Keeps Me Seeking. The Invitation from Science, Philosophy and ReligionAndrew Briggs Hans Halvorson Andrew Steane (Alexei Nesteruk) October2019312Subscribers only
Book reviewThe robots are coming: us them and GodNigel Cameron (Peter Robinson) October2019312Subscribers only
Book reviewFinding Ourselves after Darwin: Conversations on the Image of God, Original Sin, and the Problem of EvilStanley P. Rosenberg (General Editor) Michael Burdett (assoc. ed.) Michael Lloyd (assoc. ed.) Benno van den Toren (assoc. ed.) (Denis O. Lamoureux) October2019312Subscribers only
Book reviewAre There Limits to Science?Gillian Straine (ed.) (Malcolm S. Buchanan) October2019312Subscribers only
Book reviewTheology in a Suffering World: Glory and LongingChristopher Southgate (Jonathan W. Chappell) October2019312Subscribers only
Book reviewNatural Novelty: The Newness Manifest in ExistenceRichard Boyle (Kevin Ralley) October2019312Subscribers only
Book reviewThe Brain, the Mind and the Person Within: The Enduring Mystery of the SoulMark Cosgrove (Peter Hampson) October2019312Subscribers only
Book reviewDoes Science Undermine Faith?Roger Trigg (Ben MacArthur)October2019312Subscribers only
ArticleEditorialKeith FoxApril2019311Subscribers only
ArticleDarwin among the Pagans: Secularisation and the Reception of the Theory of Evolution in Buenos Aires

Abstract

The study of the long-term reception of the theory of evolution in Argentina can be of assistance in the broader understanding of interactions between the dynamics of secularisation in a given society and the relationship between science and religion. Two stages can be discerned in this process. In the first, in 1884, Darwin and evolutionary theory were a rhetorical resource at the service of a political and ideological secularisation project identified with progress and modernity. At the height of positivism, around 1918, many meanings associated with evolutionism coalesced around the figure of the Argentinian palaeontologist Florentino Ameghino, whose anthropological theories about the origin of Tertiary human beings were debated as part of broader questions involving the relationship between science, religion and secularisation. As a whole, the story warns against any attempt at interpreting the reception of Darwin’s ideas in Iberian America (and elsewhere for that matter) as a triumphal march of reason against religious obscurantism. It also shows how issues of belief and unbelief determined the way evolutionism was received in a country in which church-state relationships were shaped after the French model of laïcité.

Keywords

science and religion; science and secularisation; reception of Darwinism; Ameghino
MIGUEL DE ASÚAApril2019311Subscribers only
ArticleSoteriology, Eschatology and Cosmology: Resolving the Dissonance and Providing a Lens

Abstract

Recent studies of the relationship between science and religion yield a growing scholarly consensus over the compatibility of each category’s truth claims, but there is continued dissonance in the relationship between the truth claims of cosmology and eschatology. On the one hand, cosmologists claim that the world ends in catastrophe; on the other hand, theologians working on eschatology claim that it is moving towards renewal and new creation. Recent scholarship responds to this dissonance by emphasising the bodily resurrection of Jesus. There is, however, another possible resolution to this dissonance that also provides an interpretive lens for understanding cosmology: using the Christian doctrine of soteriology as an analogy for eschatological claims. Through a comparative analysis of its own narrative with the narrative of cosmology, the Christian doctrine of soteriology lends a new perspective to the cosmological-eschatological dissonance while also providing a larger interpretive lens.

Keywords

soteriology, cosmology, eschatology, divine action, narrative theology, narrative of nature
MARIO A. RUSSOApril2019311Subscribers only
ArticleScience, Religion and the ‘New Reformation’ of the Nineteenth Century

Abstract

The concept of a ‘New Reformation’ has a long history among Protestant intellectuals. Protestant theologians, philosophers, historians and men of science have all called for another reformation of religion, a purification of Protestant Christianity rather than its abandonment. But in the hands of nineteenth-century scientific naturalists, dissident intellectuals and even liberal Anglicans, the trope of ‘New Reformation’ underwent a dramatic transformation. From a Protestant self-critique, the trope became a polemic against orthodox Christian belief. While the new ‘reformers’ continued to use the language of Protestants, they ultimately rejected the doctrinal beliefs of traditional Christianity.

Keywords

science and religion; Protestantism; Reformation; liberal Anglican; dissident intellectuals; scientific naturalists; secularism
JAMES C. UNGUREANUApril2019311Subscribers only
DebateA Response to ‘Miracles in Medicine’PAUL MARSTONApril2019311Subscribers only
DebateResponse to Paul Marston and Meric SrokoszPETER MAYApril2019311Subscribers only
CorrespondenceConcordismTIM WEATHERSTONEApril2019311Subscribers only
Book reviewJesus, Beginnings and Science: A guide for group conversationNaomi DawsonApril2019311Subscribers only
Book reviewReligion in the AnthropoceneChristopher SouthgateApril2019311Subscribers only
Book reviewCreation, Evolution, and Intelligent DesignDenis AlexanderApril2019311Subscribers only
Book reviewTheological Neuroethics: Christian Ethics Meets The Science Of The Human BrainEmeritus Professor Malcolm Jeeves, CBE.April2019311Subscribers only
Book reviewA Primer in Ecotheology: Theology for a Fragile EarthMeric SrokoszApril2019311Subscribers only
Book reviewThe New Cosmic Story: Inside Our Awakening UniverseJohn P. SlatteryApril2019311Subscribers only
Book reviewGod and the Mathematics of InfinityRob HeatherApril2019311Subscribers only
Book reviewPsychological Science and Christian Faith: Insights and Enrichments from Constructive DialogueProfessor Justin BarrettApril2019311Subscribers only
Book reviewEntangled Worlds: Religion, Science and New MaterialismsTim MiddletonApril2019311Subscribers only
Book reviewEnlightenment Now: The Case for Reason, Science, Humanism and ProgressJonathan W. ChappellApril2019311Subscribers only
Book reviewReligion vs. Science: What Religious People Really ThinkAmy UnsworthApril2019311Subscribers only
Book reviewA Teacher’s Guide to Science and Religion in the ClassroomBenjamin HinksApril2019311Subscribers only
Book reviewThere is No Theory of Everything; A Physics Perspective on EmergenceTom McLeish FRSApril2019311Subscribers only
Book reviewGod and Ultimate Origins: A Novel Cosmological ArgumentGavin MerrifieldApril2019311Subscribers only
Book reviewMere Science and Christian Faith – Bridging The Divide With Emerging AdultsClare Foster Jonathan FosterApril2019311Subscribers only
ArticleEditorialKeith FoxOctober2018302Free to view
ArticleInteraction between genes and the relational environment during development of the social brain

Abstract

Humans have complex brains. These have evolved over a vast phylogenetic history. Scientists are discovering genetic innovations that may have contributed to brain development over evolutionary time. The science of comparative genomics reveals when during evolution each such formative genomic event occurred and the mechanism by which it arose. However, genetics are necessary but not sufficient to account for our mental capacities. For example, our ability to interact as persons (to practise theory of mind) is not genetically encoded, but is learned. During infancy and childhood, brains cannot follow normal developmental trajectories in the absence of attentive, loving caregiving. Human brain development and function require personal input. We share in the fullness of being human by interpersonal relationship, and a Christian interpretation of this fact is that human flourishing requires that people know, and are known by, God.

Keywords

social interaction, theory of mind (ToM), child neglect, stress, cerebral development, language, nurture, being human, knowing
Graeme FinlayOctober2018302Free to view
SupplementaryInteraction between genes and the relational environment during development of the social brainGraeme FinlayOctober2018302Free to view
ArticleDoes the Bible Affirm Scientific Errors? A Reply to Denis Lamoureux

Abstract

In recent years a number of scholars have argued that numerous biblical texts affirm what we now know are erroneous scientific notions. The sort of arguments they use and the biblical texts they cite have been well summarised in the writings of Denis Lamoureux. Lamoureux argues that these texts affirm erroneous notions concerning a three-tier universe, the movement of the sun across the sky, a solid firmament, flat earth, the mustard seed being the smallest seed, the death of the seed during germination, preformatism and creation de novo. I show that Lamoureux has not adequately considered Beale’s distinction between what the texts affirm and what the author believes. I develop various arguments based on this distinction and demonstrate that Lamoureux’s arguments fail to refute Beale’s position concerning biblical inerrancy and rule out an alternative view of divine accommodation which uses ancient common ways of expression without affirming scientific errors.

Keywords

divine accommodation, scientific errors, biblical inerrancy, three-tier universe, geocentrism, firmament
Andrew LokeOctober2018302Free to view
ArticleMarkers of Human Creaturehood: Soil, Spirit and Salvation

Abstract

When faced with the invitation for self-transformation through bio-nano-technology, we must pause to ask: just what does it mean to be a human being? Both scripture and evolution make the same point: we humans live at the metaxy, in the tension between soil and spirit. Genesis 2:7 says we live at the in-between where the ineffable God beyond touches the mundane realm of daily existence. Even in salvation, we will be redeemed creatures and not gods. The promise of technological utopianism, then, becomes an empty promise. Even with dramatic bio-enhancements or improved intelligence, we Homo sapiens must still pray that divine grace will provide the ultimate transformation. In the meantime, we should simply enjoy the metaxy.

Keywords

metaxy, human, dignity, technology, Transhumanism, spirit, Genesis 2:7
Ted PetersOctober2018302Free to view
ArticlePenultimate Curiosity in the Pre-Modern World

Abstract

This is a lightly edited version of a talk given at the 2017 Christians in Science Conference in Oxford. Intended as a response to Roger Wagner and Andrew Briggs’ book The Penultimate Curiosity, it argues that in past circumstances where (as Wagner and Briggs put it) ‘science swims in the slipstream of ultimate questions’, at least one additional factor – a positive view of scientific curiosity – must also have been operative. Curiosity has not always been viewed in a positive light, and projects aimed at obtaining knowledge of nature have often been judged to be problematic. Those who promoted new knowledge acquisition projects often felt a need to defend those projects against accusations of misplaced or misdirected curiosity. Given this, strong slipstream effects – particular theological convictions about the relations between ultimate and penultimate things – alone must have been insufficient to encourage penultimate curiosity.

Keywords

curiosity, history, science, religion, Christianity, Francis Bacon.
Peter N. JordanOctober2018302Free to view
ArticleObituary R.J. (Sam) BerryMalcolm JeevesOctober2018302Free to view
Book reviewWho Needs the Old Testament? Its Enduring Appeal and Why the New Atheists Don’t Get It

Abstract

Katharine Dell (Rebecca Watson) October2018302Free to view
Book reviewScience and Religion: Beyond Warfare and Toward UnderstandingJoshua Moritz (James R. Hofmann)October2018302Free to view
Book reviewAquinas and Modern Science – A New Synthesis of Faith & ReasonGerard M. Verschuuren (Ignacio Silva)October2018302Free to view
Book reviewPicking up the PiecesPhilip Bligh (Stephen Thompson)October2018302Free to view
Book reviewGenes, Determinism and GodDenis Alexander (John Bryant)October2018302Free to view
Book reviewThe Little Book Of God, Mind, Cosmos And TruthKenneth Francis (Joshua Fountain)October2018302Free to view
Book reviewAstrophysics and Creation: Perceiving the Universe through Science and ParticipationArnold Benz (Eric Priest)October2018302Free to view
Book reviewChristianity and the Roots of Morality: Philosophical, Early Christian and Empirical PerspectivesPetri Luomanen Anne Birgitta Pessi Ilkka Pyysiäinen (editors) (Michael Fuller)October2018302Free to view
Book reviewCreation Care: A Biblical Theology of the Natural WorldDouglas J. Moo Jonathan A. Moo (Prof. Robert (Bob) White)October2018302Free to view
Book reviewQuestions in the Psychology of ReligionKevin S. Seybold (Mark Graves)October2018302Free to view
Book reviewBlue Planet Blue God: The Bible and the SeaMeric Srokosz Rebecca S Watson (Nicholas Higgs)October2018302Free to view
Book reviewThe Luminous Web: Faith, Science and the Experience of Wonder Barbara Brown Taylor (Dr Ruth M. Bancewicz)October2018302Free to view
Book reviewScience, Evolution and ReligionMichael Peterson Michael Ruse (Roger Trigg)October2018302Free to view
Book reviewThe Gospel according to DawkinsGraeme Finlay (Patrick Richmond)October2018302Free to view
Book reviewHope in the Age of Climate Change: creation care this side of the resurrectionChris Doran (Rev. Dave Bookless)October2018302Free to view
Book reviewThe Not-So-Intelligent Designer: Why Evolution Explains the Human Body and Intelligent Design Does NotAbby Hafer (Keith Fox)October2018302Free to view
Book reviewWonder, Value and God Robin Attfield (Bethany Sollereder)October2018302Free to view
ArticleEditorialMeric SrokoszApril2018301Free to view
ArticleBeyond ‘The Warfare of Science with Theology’: George Tyrrell’s Plea for Epistemic Humility

Abstract

The Catholic Modernist theologian and scholar, George Tyrrell (1861–1909), may be characterised as a Thomist who sought to relate theology constructively to the issues of the day. While his engagement with historical criticism has been well studied, his response to the challenge of science, and particularly of evolution, has been neglected. This article seeks to address this neglect. Having outlined his intellectual context, it explores his cautiously affirmative approach to the idea of evolution, and shows that he was just as opposed to scientific reductionism as he was to the ethical reductionism of liberal Protestantism and to the absolutising of Thomism by his neo-scholastic contemporaries. The rationale for his position is shown to be his neo-Kantian conviction that science and theology are both fallible human endeavours which operate within clear epistemological constraints. A humble recognition of these limits, he believed, could help us move beyond the conflict between science and theology that was apparent in his day.

Keywords

Tyrrell, von Hügel, Modernism, Thomism, neo-scholasticism, evolution, positivism, Harnack, neo-Kantianism, epistemology
JONATHAN W. CHAPPELLApril2018301Free to view
ArticleCuriosity in the Early Christian Era - Philoponus’s Defence of Ancient Astronomy against Christian Critics

Abstract

Curiosity is seen today as something good, desirable even. However, it was not always so. From the time that Hellenistic culture started to show signs of decline shortly before the birth of Christ, the attention of ancient scholars focused on the past, looking back to a golden era of sages. For Christianity, the primary interest was not the investigation of the natural world, and yet its world-view challenged some common assumptions that were of importance for the ‘natural philosophy’ conceptions of pagan late antiquity such as the eternity of the world, the divinity of the heavens, the astrological determinism, and so forth. Although these debates were not about the ‘technical’ portion of ancient learning – sphericity of the earth and heavens, epicycle models of planetary movements, theory of eclipses, and so on – voices were raised demanding a ‘Christian cosmology’. Their stronghold was at the theological school of Antioch that clashed with their traditional rivals of Alexandria, the city that was also the cradle of pagan natural philosophy. By the sixth century, the main exponent of the Antiochene flat earth cosmology, Cosmas Indicopleustes, was confronted by the Alexandrian Christian scholar John Philoponus, who defended the freedom of investigating nature and the freedom of scientific curiosity, within a Christian world-view.

Keywords

curiosity, Cosmas Indicopleustes, John Philoponus, flat earth, sphericity, concordism, Christoph Rothmann, accommodation principle
PABLO DE FELIPEApril2018301Free to view
ArticleCharles Raven (1885-1964): Professor of Divinity and Promoter of Science

Abstract

Charles Raven (1885-1964) was an outstanding theologian and preacher of the first half of the twentieth century. Raven had a fascination with and a deep appreciation of nature. His Christian faith, which developed during and after his years as a student at Cambridge University, gave a further dimension of meaning to this engagement. This article examines a number of aspects of Raven’s contribution in the area of science and faith. He was a passionate advocate of the importance of careful observation of the natural world as a crucial aspect of the spiritual life. As a theologian – he became Regius Professor of Divinity at Cambridge – he argued that Christian theology was enriched by an understanding of evolution and that this message of science and faith belonging together should be taken into the public square. Perhaps his most important scholarly contribution in the field of science was as a historian. But he always wanted to be someone who had an influence far beyond the scholarly world. In this he had considerable success, speaking to varied audiences, in universities, in schools and in broadcasting. Raven was concerned that the Christian message should be communicated in an authentic way and his deeply-held belief was that engagement with science was an essential part of that task. His view was that the scientific method had given a new point of approach to every subject of intellectual enquiry. As a Christian thinker this was a development he embraced with enthusiasm.

Keywords

nature, evolution, determinism, public theology; History of Science
IAN RANDALLApril2018301Free to view
Book reviewRight to Die? Euthanasia, assisted suicide and end-of-life careJohn Wyatt (Philippa Taylor)April2018301Free to view
Book reviewTaking Rites Seriously: Law, Politics, and the Reasonableness of FaithFrancis J. Beckwith (David Opderbeck)April2018301Free to view
Book reviewDictionary of Christianity and Science: The Definitive Reference for the Intersection of Christian Faith and Contemporary SciencePaul Copan Tremper Longman III Christopher L Reese Michael G Strauss (gen. eds.) (Randy Isaac)April2018301Free to view
Book reviewA Fortunate Universe: Life in a Finely Tuned CosmosGeraint F. Lewis Luke A. Barnes (Paul Wraight)April2018301Free to view
Book reviewNeuroscience and the Soul: The Human Person in Philosophy, Science and TheologyThomas M. Crisp Steven L. Porter Gregg A. Ten Elshof (eds.) (Marc Cortez)April2018301Free to view
Book reviewMaterialismTerry Eagleton (Jonathan W. Chappell)April2018301Free to view
Book reviewEvolution and Holiness: Sociobiology, Altruism and the Quest for Wesleyian PerfectionMatthew Nelson Hill (Michael Rycroft)April2018301Free to view
Book reviewHalf-Earth: Our Planet’s Fight for LifeEdward O. Wilson (Dave Bookless)April2018301Free to view
Book reviewEvolution: Scripture and Nature Say Yes!Denis O. Lamoureux (Simon Kolstoe)April2018301Free to view
Book reviewA little book for new scientistsJosh A. Reeves Steve Donaldson (Rhoda Hawkins)April2018301Free to view
Book reviewParticles of Faith: A Catholic Guide to Navigating ScienceStacy A. Trasancos (Fintan Lyons)April2018301Free to view
Book reviewHuman Origins and the Image of God: Essays in Honor of J. Wentzel van HuyssteenChristopher Lilley Daniel J. Pedersen (eds.) (Malcolm Jeeves)April2018301Free to view
Book reviewLet There Be Light! Nuclear Energy: A Christian CaseRobert S. Dutch (Tim Middleton)April2018301Free to view
Book reviewEvolution and the FallWilliam T. Cavanaugh James K. Smith (eds.) (Denis O. Lamoureux)April2018301Free to view
Book reviewCreation: A Guide for the PerplexedSimon Oliver (Jamie Boulding)April2018301Free to view
Book reviewOld Earth or Evolutionary Creation? Discussing Origins with Reasons to Believe and BiologosKenneth Keathley J. B. Stum Joe Aguirre (Peter J. M. van der Burgt)April2018301Free to view
Book reviewMessy Church Does ScienceDavid Gregory (ed.) (Stephanie BryantApril2018301Free to view
ArticleEditorialKeith FoxOctober2017292Free to view
ArticleCreation as a Gift: A Neglected Approach to Creation Care

Abstract

Our Christian responsibility for ‘every living thing’ (Genesis 1) has long been framed as a matter of creation care. This frame fits well within the broader secular concepts of stewardship and sustainability that have been espoused by many, from development organisations to government funded schools. In recent years, Christian theologians and thought leaders have expanded on the frames within which to address issues of the environment and climate change. These include loving our global neighbours, sharing God’s mission, celebrating the community of creation and embracing a covenant framework. Here, I argue for placing more emphasis on another, complementary perspective, that of considering creation as a gift. Although this idea has been considered by postmodern philosophers and theologians and Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic leaders and scholars, it has only been briefly referred to in passing by conservative Protestant Christian theologians and scientists concerned with creation care. I suggest, however, that only within biblical Christianity can this approach be fully appreciated, as one that motivates us both to give thanks and to give ourselves to the care for a creation that is under serious threat.

Keywords

Creator, creation, stewardship, gift, Derrida, Gaia, care-giving, self-giving
DOUGLAS HAYHOEOctober2017292Free to view
ArticleMiracles in MedicinePETER MAYOctober2017292Free to view
ArticleMiracles in Medicine – a brief response to Peter MayMERIC SROKOSZOctober2017292Free to view
ArticleScience and the Reformation: Historiographical Soundings

Abstract

This article surveys some of the ways in which historians have conceived of the relations between science and the Reformation. Intended as an introduction for those unfamiliar with this literature, it focuses on a selection of studies that together illustrate something of the range of associations, interactions, and influences that historians have identified.

Keywords

history; reception history; science; religion; Christianity; Reformation; early modern
PETER N. JORDANOctober2017292Free to view
CorrespondenceModels of the Fall – responses to Lydia Jaeger - Original sinPETER NELSONOctober2017292Free to view
CorrespondenceModels of the Fall – responses to Lydia Jaeger - Sin and MortalityANDREW STEANEOctober2017292Free to view
CorrespondenceModels of the Fall Including a Historical Adam as Ancestor of All Humans: Scientific and Theological Constraints - Response to Peter G. Nelson and Andrew SteaneLYDIA JAEGEROctober2017292Free to view
Book reviewVying for Truth – Theology and the Natural Sciences from the 17th Century to the PresentHans Schwarz (Michael Fuller)October2017292Free to view
Book reviewFree Thought, Faith and Science: Finding Unity by Seeking TruthRoger Pullin (John Spicer)October2017292Free to view
Book reviewFinding God in the Waves: How I Lost My Faith and Found It Again Through ScienceMike McHargue (Nicholas Higgs)October2017292Free to view
Book reviewThe Ashgate Research Companion to Theological AnthropologyJoshua R. Farris Charles Taliaferro (Alexander Massmann)October2017292Free to view
Book reviewDescribing the Hand of God: Divine Agency and Augustinian Obstacles to the Dialogue between Theology and ScienceRobert Brennan (Fintan Lyons)October2017292Free to view
Book reviewConversion in Luke-Acts: Divine Action, Human Cognition, and the People of GodJoel B. Green (Malcolm Jeeves)October2017292Free to view
Book reviewThe Believing Scientist: Essays on Science and ReligionStephen M. Barr (Robert C. Bishop)October2017292Free to view
Book reviewHow can Physics underlie the Mind?George Ellis (Paul Ewart)October2017292Free to view
Book reviewReason and Wonder: Why Science and Faith need each otherEric Priest (ed.) (John Weaver)October2017292Free to view
Book reviewWhere Science and Ethics Meet: Dilemmas at the Frontiers of Medicine and BiologyChris Willmott Salvador Macip, (Philippa Taylor)October2017292Free to view
Book reviewSignposts to God: How Modern Physics & Astronomy Point the Way to BeliefPeter Bussey (Jeffrey Koperski)October2017292Free to view
Book reviewAdam and the Genome: Reading Scripture after Genetic ScienceDennis R. Venema Scot McKnight, (Jitse van der Meer) (Koert van Bekkum)October2017292Free to view
Book reviewLet There Be Science: Why God Loves Science, and Science Needs GodDavid Hutchings Tom McLeish (Ruth M Bancewicz)October2017292Free to view
ArticleObjecting to theodicy and the legitimacy of protesting against evil

Abstract

The Lisbon earthquake of 1755 and the concomitant debates among eighteenth-century intellectuals set the stage for the modern project of theodicy – the task of reconciling the existence and goodness of God with the reality of evil. Yet the validity of the enterprise was questioned by writers such as Voltaire and Kant right from the beginning. With this in mind, this article seeks to explore four interlinked concerns of the anti-theodicist. Firstly, why do people write theodicies at all? Some are crafting works of Christian apologetics; others have a deep-rooted desire for understanding; but why do we assume that evil must be intelligible in the first place. Secondly, many theodicists defend their writing by inserting the caveat that they do not intend to offer a pastoral response. However, there are good reasons to think that this distinction between intellectual and pastoral questions is a false one. Thirdly, many grand, cosmic, theodical schemes marginalise the plight of the victims. Evil must be engaged with from a first person, not a third person, perspective. Lastly, many Christian theologians neglect the incarnation and crucifixion in their theodicies. Yet it is the narrative of Christ’s life that should form the basis of a Christian outlook. Instead of theodicy, it is argued, a better response to evil is to follow the path of moral outrage. Crucially, though, this need not lead to protest atheism – indeed jettisoning God might even undermine the grounds for protest. A combination of silence and lament, shared by Christ on the cross, is a viable and properly Christian reply.

Keywords

Lisbon earthquake, theodicy, natural evil, suffering, protest atheism, anti-theodicy, lament, solidarity
Tim MiddletonApril2017291Free to view
ArticleModels of the Fall Including a Historical Adam as Ancestor of All Humans: Scientific and Theological Constraints

Abstract

Original sin introduces a distinctive feature of humanity. Only humans, yet all humans, are sinners, thus implying a clear animal-human difference. This traditional doctrine has increasingly been considered incompatible with scientific knowledge. This article examines the extent to which it is possible to maintain a strong notion of original sin, while accepting the genetic and palaeontological data. The strong notion considered here includes a historical Adam as ancestor of all humans and human corruption and death as consequences of original sin. Particular attention will be paid to the understanding of original sin as the loss of original righteousness. Drawing on both the Thomist and the Reformed traditions, the version of original sin explored here combines three key themes in order to account for what happened subsequent to the fall: loss of original righteousness, total corruption of human nature and loss of communion with God. As humans are created in God’s image, communion with God is essential for human nature, and the loss of this communion implies malfunction and corruption of the nature. It is argued that this view can be held without any contradiction of known scientific data. Major authors whose work on this subject is considered include Aquinas, Calvin, Turretin and Henri Blocher.

Keywords

original sin, animal-human distinction, rebellion against God, evolution, Adam, human corruption and death, Augustine, Aquinas, Calvin, Henri Blocher
Lydia JaegerApril2017291Free to view
ArticleGod, Nature and the Origins of LifeWilliam E. Carroll Rafael VicuñaApril2017291Free to view
ArticleWhen faith and science meetDavid WilkinsonApril2017291Free to view
CorrespondenceBack to the Future of Human OriginsNicola BerrettaApril2017291Free to view
CorrespondenceA Response to BerrettaDenis R. AlexanderApril2017291Free to view
CorrespondenceHuman originsPeter G. NelsonApril2017291Free to view
CorrespondenceA response to NelsonErnest LucasApril2017291Free to view
ArticleObituary - Peter G H Clarke 29 December 1946 – 16 September 2015Stuart JudgeApril2017291Free to view
Book reviewNatural Theology in the Scientific Revolution: God’s ScientistsKatherine Calloway (James Hannam)April2017291Free to view
Book reviewThe Emergence of Personhood: A Quantum Leap?Malcolm Jeeves (ed.), (Peter Hampson)April2017291Free to view
Book reviewThe Rise of Modern Science Explained: A Comparative HistoryH. Floris Cohen, (Allan Chapman) April2017291Free to view
Book reviewEvolution, Chance and God: Understanding the Relationship between Evolution and ReligionBrendan Sweetman, (Denis Alexander)April2017291Free to view
Book reviewThe Uncontrolling Love of God: An Open and Relational Account of ProvidenceThomas Jay Oord, (Rodney Holder) April2017291Free to view
Book reviewThe Sense of the Universe: Philosophical Explication of the Theological Commitment in Modern CosmologyAlexei V. Nesteruk, (Andrei I. Holodny) April2017291Free to view
Book reviewOur Bodies Are SelvesPhilip Hefner Ann Milliken Pederson Susan Barreto (Mark Graves) April2017291Free to view
Book reviewScience and Christian Faith in Post-Cold War Europe: A comparative analysis 25 years after the fall of the Berlin WallGiandomenico Boffi Marijan Sunjic (Eds.) (Michael Fuller)April2017291Free to view
Book reviewThe Destruction of Sodom: A Scientific CommentaryGraham Harris (Colin Humphreys) April2017291Free to view
Book reviewThe Age of Genius: The Seventeenth Century & the Birth of the Modern MindA.C. Grayling (John Hedley Brooke) April2017291Free to view
Book reviewThe Penultimate Curiosity: how science swims in the slipstream of ultimate questionsRoger Wagner Andrew Briggs (Tim Middleton)April2017291Free to view
Book reviewCreation Care and the Gospel: Reconsidering the Mission of the ChurchColin Bell Robert S White (Eds.) (Chris Naylor) April2017291Free to view
Book reviewGod Is No Thing: Coherent ChristianityRupert Shortt (Patrick Richmond) April2017291Free to view
Book reviewScience and the Christian FaithAndrew Loke (Paul Wraight)April2017291Free to view
Book reviewHow I changed my mind about Evolution: Evangelicals reflect on faith and scienceKathryn Applegate J.B. Stump (Eds.) (Simon Kolstoe) April2017291Free to view
Book reviewGod? Very Probably: Five Rational Ways to Think about the Question of GodRobert H. Nelson (Tony Costa)April2017291Free to view
Book reviewBut Is It True?Michael Ots (Joshua Fountain)April2017291Free to view
Book reviewThe Search for God and the Path to PersuasionPeter May (Joshua Fountain)April2017291Free to view
Book reviewAbraham’s Dice – Chance and Providence in the Monotheistic TraditionsKarl W. Giberson (ed.) (Denis Alexander) April2017291Free to view
ArticleDistinguishing Doctrine and Theological Theory – A Tool for Exploring the Interface between Science and Faith

Abstract

This article explores the value of the distinction between doctrine and theological theory for creating space at the interface between the natural sciences and theology. It argues that in a taxonomy of theological statements, doctrines have a different role and greater weight from theological theories. Doctrines express the teachings of the church that guard Christian identity and regulate the Christian life. As such they also make truth claims that can be in tension with scientific theories, for example concerning the origin of the human species. However, these tensions are often experienced more particularly at the level of theological theories, which are developed to gain a deeper understanding of the reality of the Gospel behind these doctrines. Though these theories are important as an expression of our desire to know God, in order to understand the different facets of human experience and for apologetic reasons, they are of secondary importance compared to doctrines and should be held more lightly. Because theological theories are often more deeply shaped by available cultural thought-forms than doctrines, they can be and sometimes should be exchanged for alternatives that make more sense in the light of the totality of our experience, including insights gained from the natural sciences.

Keywords

doctrine, theological theory, scriptural authority, truth claims, dogma, the Eucharist
BENNO VAN DEN TORENOctober2016282Free to view
ArticleThe Bible, Science and Human Origins

Abstract

This paper considers whether, and how, the current scientific consensus about human origins can be related to the relevant biblical passages. The scientific consensus is outlined, noting points that might seem problematic from a biblical perspective. It is argued that the Bible should be understood using ‘the principle of incarnation’ as a hermeneutic approach. This requires taking seriously the historical and cultural context, and the contemporary literary forms, of its inspired writers. Genesis 1-3, 1 Corinthians 15:21-22, 42-49 and Romans 5:12-21 are discussed, noting theological points that may be relevant with regard to the scientific consensus. It is argued that the Bible’s purpose is not to give us scientific information about human origins but to reveal theological truths about the nature and purpose of humans. How these theological truths might be related to the scientific consensus about human origins is then discussed. Two particular models for relating the biblical story of Adam and Eve and the Fall to the scientific story are presented. These are not the only possible models that are compatible with both the biblical theology of human origins and current scientific evidence. The important thing is that such models are possible.

Keywords

Adam, evolution, Genesis, image of God, Paul, the Fall
ERNEST C. LUCAS DENIS R. ALEXANDER R.J. (SAM) BERRY G. ANDREW D. BRIGGS COLIN J. HUMPHREYS MALCOLM A. JEEVES ANTHONY C. THISELTONOctober2016282Free to view
ArticleGoing beyond the How and Why of Science-Religion? Senior Christian Leaders on Science and Personal Faith

Abstract

In popular discourse today, ‘science’ versus ‘religion’ is a common binary opposition and science and faith are often defined by their assumed opposition to one another. Religious believers are often assumed to be anti-science on the basis of their faith. But how do people of faith actually relate to science? This pilot study addressed this question by focusing on a particular segment of faith communities: senior Christian leaders in England, who have significant influence on values in their organisations as well as in the wider British society. As part of our preliminary data collection we interviewed fourteen leaders, Anglican bishops and directors of other Christian denominations and organisations, exploring how they actually relate to science and conceptualise various science-religion questions. This article considers the implications of science for personal Christian faith. We explore how the interviewees understand the relation between faith and science, how they deal with the difficult questions of evolution and creation and the interpretation of Scripture. We show how the main tension in the conversations about science and faith with Christian leaders is between scientific claims on the one hand, and Christian faith and especially Scripture on the other. A key theme which emerged is an opposition, shared by a majority of the interviewees, against fundamentalism and biblical literalism. We also look at the role of the ‘how/why’ distinction in their approach to science-theology questions (‘science and religion are separate but equal: science answers ‘how’ questions’, religion answers ‘why’ questions.’) We suggest that while many of the senior leaders find this model too simplistic, some may use it as a strategy to avoid the difficult theological and scientific questions in the intersection between science and theology. We conclude that further exploration of these tensions, and research into effective ways to equip Christian leaders to engage with science, is necessary if we want to encourage a deeper, richer science-faith dialogue.

Keywords

Science versus religion, ‘how/why’ questions, evolution, Creationism, biblical fundamentalism
REBECCA BOUVENG DAVID WILKINSONOctober2016282Free to view
Book reviewHuman evolution: genes, genealogies and phylogeniesGraeme Finlay (Tom Hartman)October2016282Free to view
Book reviewChance or Providence – Religious Perspectives on Divine ActionLouise Hickman (ed.) (Denis Alexander)October2016282Free to view
Book reviewDealing with Darwin: Place, Politics, and Rhetoric in Religious Engagements with EvolutionDavid N. Livingstone (Jonathan W. Chappell)October2016282Free to view
Book reviewAll In The Mind?: Does Neuroscience Challenge Faith?Peter Clarke (Malcolm Jeeves)October2016282Free to view
Book reviewBeyond Matter: Why Science Needs MetaphysicsRoger Trigg (Rodney Holder)October2016282Free to view
Book reviewThe Territories of Science and ReligionPeter Harrison (James Hannam)October2016282Free to view
Book reviewThe Runes of Evolution: How the Universe Became Self-AwareSimon Conway Morris (David C. Lahti)October2016282Free to view
Book reviewCan Science Explain Religion? The Cognitive Science DebateJames W. Jones (Roger Trigg)October2016282Free to view
Book reviewTechnofutures, Nature and the Sacred: Transdisciplinary PerspectivesCelia Deane-Drummond Sigurd Bergmann Bronislaw Szerszynski (eds.) (Graham Nevin)October2016282Free to view
Book reviewScripture and Cosmology: Reading the Bible between the Ancient World and Modern ScienceKyle Greenwood (Denis O. Lamoureux)October2016282Free to view
Book reviewSaving the Original Sinner: How Christians have Used the Bible’s First Man to Oppress, Inspire and Make Sense of the WorldK. W. Giberson (Simon Kolstoe)October2016282Free to view
Book reviewInventing the Universe: Why we Can’t Stop Talking about Science, Faith and GodAlister McGrath (Chris Oldfield)October2016282Free to view
Book reviewSuffering: If God exists, why doesn’t he stop it?John Morris (David Girling)October2016282Free to view
Book reviewOrigins: The Scientific Story of CreationJim Baggott (Peter J. M. van der Burgt)October2016282Free to view
Book reviewOrigins: God, Evolution, and the Question of the CosmosPhilip A Rolnick (Graeme Finlay)October2016282Free to view
ArticleEditorialKeith FoxApril2016281Free to view
ArticleAnimal suffering, the hard problem of consciousness and a reflection on why we should treat animals well

Abstract

Considerable effort and ingenuity is expended on developing theodicies in response to the problem caused by evolution in terms of pain and suffering in creation and the fact that God is good and his creation is good. From a physiological and neurological perspective, it is clear that many creatures experience pain. However, pain is an essential part of the evolutionary process being clearly adaptive, potentially preventing a worse outcome for a creature, namely death. A more difficult question is that of suffering. It will be shown that the question of animal suffering is identical to the issue of sentience and the ‘hard problem’ of consciousness. After reviewing the evidence for animal consciousness and then suffering, we conclude with a brief reflection on why Christians should treat animals well.

Keywords

animal, pain, suffering, consciousness, welfare
MERIC SROKOSZ SIMON KOLSTOEApril2016281Free to view
CorrespondencePresuppositionalism revisited: the necessity of a transcendent God for the intelligibility of scienceJonathan M. HanesApril2016281Free to view
CorrespondenceA response to Jonathan HanesAndrew PinsentApril2016281Free to view
Book reviewTime in Eternity: Pannenberg, Physics, and Eschatology in Creative Mutual InteractionRobert John Russell (Amos Yong)April2016281Free to view
Book reviewLight from Light: Scientists and theologians in dialogueGerald O’Collins Mary Ann Meyers, (eds.) (Andrew Davison)April2016281Free to view
Book reviewSlaying the Dragons: Destroying Myths in the History of Science and FaithAllan Chapman (Paul Marston)April2016281Free to view
Book reviewThe Biblical Cosmos: A Pilgrim’s Guide to the Weird and Wonderful World of the BibleRobin A. Parry (Denis O. Lamoureux)April2016281Free to view
Book reviewMathematical Theologies: Nicholas of Cusa and the Legacy of Thierry of ChartresDavid Albertson (Jamie Boulding)April2016281Free to view
Book reviewThe Depth of the Human Person: A Multidisciplinary ApproachMichael Welker (ed.) (John Wyatt)April2016281Free to view
Book reviewWhen I Pray, What Does God Do?David Wilkinson (Rodney Holder)April2016281Free to view
Book reviewThe Physics of Theism: God, Physics, and the Philosophy of ScienceJeffrey Koperski (Paul Wraight)April2016281Free to view
Book reviewScience and Religion: 5 QuestionsGregg D. Caruso (ed.) (Patrick Richmond)April2016281Free to view
Book reviewState of Affairs: The Science-Theology ControversyRichard J. Coleman (Steve Bishop)April2016281Free to view
Book reviewThe Territories of Science and ReligionPeter Harrison (Ernest Lucas)April2016281Free to view
Book reviewBoyle Studies: Aspects of the Life and Thought of Robert Boyle (1627-91)Michael Hunter (Allan Chapman)April2016281Free to view
Book reviewMathematicians & Their Gods: Interactions between mathematics and religious beliefsSnezana Lawrence Mark McCartney (eds.) (P. Douglas Kindschi)April2016281Free to view
Book reviewLatin American Perspectives on Science and ReligionIgnacio Silva (ed.) (César Navarro)April2016281Free to view
Book reviewJesuit Science and the End of Nature’s SecretsMark A. Waddell (Fintan Lyons)April2016281Free to view
Book reviewThe Lost World of Adam and Eve: Genesis 2-3 and the Human Origins DebateJohn Walton (Andrea L. Robinson)April2016281Free to view
ArticleChristians in Science: Looking Back – and Forward

Abstract

Christians in Science had its origins in 1944 in a small gathering of mainly postgraduate students in Cambridge. This group became the nucleus of the Research Scientists’ Christian Fellowship (which changed its name in 1988 to Christians in Science). The RSCF was originally a graduate section of the Inter-Varsity Fellowship (now the Universities and Colleges Christian Fellowship), but is now an independent charity and limited company, albeit still retaining close links with UCCF. We review the seventy year history of CiS and its contributions to the maturing discussions in the faith-science area; we see a positive and developing role for the organisation.

Keywords

Oliver Barclay, Donald MacKay, Reijer Hooykaas, Essays and Reviews, Victoria Institute, Research Scientists’ Christian Fellowship, God-of-the-gaps, naturalism
MALCOLM JEEVES R.J. (SAM) BERRYOctober2015272Free to view
ArticleGeorges Lemaître’s 1936 Lecture on Science and Faith

Abstract

Georges Lemaître, a Mathematical physicist and a Catholic priest, is generally recognised as the key founding father of modern Big Bang cosmology. In recent years, his contribution to our modern scientific cosmological model has been increasingly recognised. However, his contribution to the science and faith field is still not very well known, especially in English. One of the reasons is that his views are dispersed in lectures that for the most part remain in French and have not been reprinted for many years. Here we present, for the first time, as far as we are aware, a full English translation of one of the key texts on science and faith from Lemaître: a 1936 lecture delivered at Malines (Belgium). All the crucial ideas in Lemaître’s view of science and faith relations appear here. These ideas were present in his early work and continued to appear in his lectures throughout the rest of his life. They are expressed in this lecture in some detail and with a strong literary force that gives them, in some cases, the character of aphorisms.

Keywords

Lemaître, concordism, discordism, hidden God, accommodation principle, scientific optimism
Pablo de Felipe Pierre Bourdon Eduardo RiazaOctober2015272Free to view
SupplementaryGeorges Lemaître’s 1936 Lecture on Science and FaithPablo de Felipe Pierre Bourdon Eduardo RiazaOctober2015272Free to view
ArticleA Grammar of Descent: John Henry Newman and the Compatibility of Evolution with Christian Doctrine

Abstract

It is widely assumed that the nineteenth century was an age dominated by unbelief. According to this view, developments in the natural sciences, such as Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution, combined with the rise of historical-critical biblical scholarship, drove many Victorians away from traditional Christian belief towards scepticism. However, while it is certainly true that many nineteenth-century thinkers came to regard orthodox religious belief as incompatible with modern science, the eminent English Roman Catholic theologian John Henry Newman (1801–90) is an outstanding example of a nineteenth-century thinker who believed that there need be no necessary contradiction between the data of Christian revelation and the scientific advances of his day. This paper explores Newman’s ideas concerning evolution, and, by focusing on his engagements with some key Victorian contemporaries, shows that, for Newman, evolutionary theory was compatible with Christian doctrine.

Keywords

Newman, evolution, Darwinism, faith and reason, development of doctrine, theodicy, rationality, conscience
JONATHAN W. CHAPPELLOctober2015272Free to view
CorrespondenceDisability and the resurrection bodyJOHN HASTINGSOctober2015272Free to view
CorrespondenceA response to John HastingsTIMOTHY WALLOctober2015272Free to view
Book reviewAfter the Monkey Trial: Evangelical Scientists and a New CreationismChristopher M Rios (Keith Fox)October2015272Free to view
Book reviewGod, Humanity and the Cosmos – Third Edition: A Textbook in Science and ReligionChristopher Southgate (ed.) (Meric Srokosz)October2015272Free to view
Book reviewThe Unknown God: Responses to the New AtheistsJohn Hughes (ed.) (James Orr)October2015272Free to view
Book reviewThe Nature of Creation: Examining the Bible and ScienceMark Harris (Hilary Marlow)October2015272Free to view
Book reviewC.S. Lewis vs the New AtheistsPeter S.Williams (Paul Wraight)October2015272Free to view
Book reviewGod in the Lab: How Science Enhances FaithRuth M. Bancewicz (Andrew Bowie)October2015272Free to view
Book reviewFaith and Wisdom in ScienceTom McLeish (Tim Middleton)October2015272Free to view
Book reviewWe Are Our Brains – From the Womb to Alzheimer’sDick Swaab Jane Hedley-Prole transl. (Denis Alexander)October2015272Free to view
Book reviewThe Wisdom of the Liminal: Evolution and Other Animals in Human BecomingCelia Deane-Drummond (Bethany Sollereder)October2015272Free to view
Book reviewGod’s PlanetOwen Gingerich (Eric Priest)October2015272Free to view
Book reviewGreat Astronomers in European HistoryPaul Marston (Allan Chapman)October2015272Free to view
Book reviewThe World is Not Six Thousand Years Old – So What?Antoine Bret (Peter Lynch)October2015272Free to view
Book reviewReligion and the Sciences of Origins: Historical and Contemporary DiscussionsKelly James Clark (Stephen Thompson)October2015272Free to view
ArticleEditorialKeith FoxApril2015271Free to view
ArticleConflict or mutual enrichment? Why science and theology need to talk to each otherALISTER E. McGRATHApril2015271Free to view
ArticleUnderstanding the causes of same-sex attraction

Abstract

The aim of this paper is to review the current academic literature on the aetiology of same-sex attraction, with a particular focus on its biological causes. Environmental, biological and choice-based aetiologies are discussed, and the empirical evidence for each position is considered. We conclude that, while some aetiologies are better supported than others, no putative cause of same-sex attraction has a sufficient empirical basis to demonstrate its causal role in same-sex attraction. Furthermore, no single cause can explain the variety of forms of same-sex attraction across different genders and cultures. We suggest that same-sex attraction is likely to be caused by a complex interplay of factors, both biological and environmental, and that causal pathways are unique to the individual.

Keywords

Same-sex attraction; homosexuality; genetics; environment; causation
Eleanor Whiteway Denis R. AlexanderApril2015271Free to view
SupplementaryUnderstanding the causes of same-sex attractionEleanor Whiteway Denis R. AlexanderApril2015271Free to view
ArticleResurrection and the natural sciences: some theological insights on sanctification and disability

Abstract

I will explore the Christian concept of resurrection from a biblical perspective arguing that it is physical and found in the context of new creation. These two results are crucial for maintaining compatibility with the natural sciences, for neuroscience emphasises the importance of physicality for identity and cosmology stresses the necessary transformation of the universe if, ultimately, life is to survive. By placing these ideas in dialogue, the importance of the eschatological transformation of both pattern and matter can be seen. This in turn has theological consequences for understanding both how sanctification can be perfected in the resurrection and how disability can be understood in the resurrected life without personal identity being obscured.

Keywords

cosmology, disability, eschatology, identity, matter, neuroscience, pattern, Polkinghorne, resurrection, sanctification
TIMOTHY WALLApril2015271Free to view
ArticleCan we give up the origin of humanity from a primal couple without giving up the teaching of original sin and atonement?

Abstract

Recent genetic studies have strengthened the hypothesis that humans did not originate from a single couple of the species Homo sapiens. Different models have been proposed to harmonise this with Christian belief on original sin and atonement. In this article I discuss these models and propose a new explanation derived from Thomas Aquinas Summa Theologica I, 98-100 and Romans 5:19;11:32. I argue that generations may have passed before the appearance of sin, and hence belief in ‘original sin’ does not require that it was committed by a pair of persons who are biologically the common ancestors of all human persons. In the light of this analysis I consider moral responsibility as the distinctive sign of human personhood, and assume that the creation of the first human persons happened during the Neolithic period. The article concludes that views of the biological origin of humanity from a primeval Homo sapiens population (polygenism) or a single couple (monogenism) are both compatible with Christian belief, and therefore deciding between these two hypotheses should be better left to science.

Keywords

human evolution, genetic diversity, ‘Homo divinus’, ‘relational damage’, God’s intervention, first human persons, Adam and Eve, Romans 11:32, moral responsibility, original sin, atonement, Darwinian principles, monogenism, polygenism
Antoine SuarezApril2015271Free to view
SupplementaryCan we give up the origin of humanity from a primal couple without giving up the teaching of original sin and atonement?Antoine SuarezApril2015271Free to view
ArticleRe-examining Tertullian and Augustine’s Relationship for the Theology Science Dialogue

Abstract

When the development of the relationship between Theology and Science is discussed, Tertullian and Augustine are typically used to represent diametrically opposed methodologies. One such recent example is Lindberg’s well-argued review of how scientific knowledge was addressed in the patristic period, which contrasts viewing science with suspicion (Tertullian) with the approach which sees it as a servant to theology (Augustine). This paper explores a largely unnoticed and unexamined dependency of Augustine in de Genesi ad Litteram on Tertullian’s de Anima. Augustine’s argument closely follows that of Tertullian, departing from the text of Genesis at the same places for the same topics as Tertullian. Noteworthy is that Augustine follows Tertullian at one point where Tertullian reverses his normal rhetoric to base his understanding of anthropology and in particular of the origin and nature of the soul upon contemporary scientia rather than his usual practice of beginning with Scripture. Rather than Tertullian and Augustine being exemplars of different approaches to the relationship of theology and science this examination of the close dependence of one theologian on the other and on then contemporary best scientific knowledge further demonstrates that the relationship is far more complicated and interdependent than often acknowledged.

Keywords

Tertullian, Augustine, Newton, divine agency, soul
ROBERT BRENNANApril2015271Free to view
Book reviewDarwin’s Doubt: The Explosive Origin of Animal Life and the Case for Intelligent DesignStephen C. Meyer (Martin R. Smith)April2015271Free to view
Book reviewLiving Lightly, Living Faithfully: Religious faiths and the future of sustainabilityColin Bell Jonathan Chaplin Robert White (Chris Naylor)April2015271Free to view
Book reviewMind and Cosmos: Why the Materialist, Neo-Darwinian Conception of Nature is Almost Certainly FalseThomas Nagel (Chris Oldfield)April2015271Free to view
Book reviewBetter People or Enhanced Humans? What it might mean to be fully alive in the context of Human EnhancementJustin Tomkins (D. Gareth Jones)April2015271Free to view
Book reviewIs Religion Natural?D. Evers M. Fuller A. Jackelen T. Smedes (eds.) (James W. Jones)April2015271Free to view
Book reviewThe Rocks Don’t Lie: A Geologist Investigates Noah’s FloodDavid R. Montgomery (David Young)April2015271Free to view
Book reviewFour Views on the Historical AdamMatthew Barrett Ardel B. Caneday (eds.) (John J. Bimson) April2015271Free to view
Book reviewThe Evolution of Adam: What the Bible Does and Doesn’t Say About Human OriginsPeter Enns (John J. Bimson)April2015271Free to view
Book reviewFlourishing: Health, Disease and Bioethics in Theological PerspectiveNeil Messer (John Bryant)April2015271Free to view
Book reviewToward an Ecology of Transfiguration. Orthodox Christian Perspectives on Environment, Nature and CreationJohn Chryssavgis Bruce V. Foltz (eds.) (Alexei Nesteruk)April2015271Free to view
Book reviewAsk the Beasts: Darwin and the God of LoveElizabeth A. Johnson (Christopher Southgate)April2015271Free to view
Book reviewWho is to blame? – Disasters, Nature, and Acts of GodRobert S. White (Tim Middleton)April2015271Free to view
Book reviewGod’s Trees: Trees, Forests and Wood in the Bible, An Illustrated Commentary and CompendiumJulian Evans (Rebecca Watson)April2015271Free to view
Book reviewAs Long As The Earth Endures: The Bible, Creation and the EnvironmentJonathan Moo Robin Routledge (eds.) (Ron Elsdon)April2015271Free to view
Book reviewEvolutionary Biology. Conceptual, Ethical, and Religious IssuesPaul Thompson Denis Walsh (eds.) (R. J. (Sam) Berry)April2015271Free to view
ArticleThe Boyle Lecture 2014: New Atheism – New Apologetics: The Use of Science in Recent Christian Apologetic WritingsALISTER E. McGRATHOctober2014262Free to view
ArticleNew Atheism – New Apologetics: A Response to Alister McGrathRICHARD HARRIESOctober2014262Free to view
ArticleA Response to Richard HarriesALISTER E. McGRATHOctober2014262Free to view
ArticleIs evolution truly random? Chance as an ideological weapon in the ‘evolution-creation’ debate

Abstract

The theory of evolution by natural selection has been debated by scientists and theologians of all faiths since it was first published by Charles Darwin in 1859. One of the core issues is the extent of chance’s role in the evolutionary process and the consequences of random evolution on the classical understanding of the cosmos as a reality created by divine design and guided by a divine providence: if evolution is completely random, what place is left for God’s hand? This crucial question has been given a wide array of diverging answers, ranging from the non-existence of evolution to the non-existence of God via several attempts to combine chance and design in a universal theory. This essay discusses the underlying concepts of chance and design displayed by three key movements in today’s debate: scientific creationism – that evolution as a completely random process is antithetic to a providential faith; Intelligent Design – that the current theory of evolution is found lacking and must be completed by a divine design and designer; and scientific materialism – that evolution as a partially random but completely mindless process renders providence and design obsolete.

Keywords

chance, design, providence, evolutionary theory, creationism, Richard Dawkins, Daniel Dennett, Intelligent Design Theory, William Dembski, Michael Behe
DIANE BISSENOctober2014262Free to view
ArticleChristian Responses to Challenging Developments in Biomedical Science: The Case of In Vitro Fertilisation (IVF)

Abstract

The emergence of in vitro fertilisation (IVF) in the late 1970s and early 1980s was met by mixed responses within Christian circles, from outright hostility amid fears to guarded acceptance. As we look back on those responses, what have we learned and what might an appropriate theological response be today? I shall argue that the responses fall into five categories: A, embryo centred – categorical; B, embryo centred – precautionary; C, embryo centred – human control; D, child and family centred – addressing infertility; E, desire centred – overcoming human limitations. While embryo centred categories (A-C) predominate among conservative Christians, there are distinct differences within these categories pointing to a variety of presuppositions. Overall, however, they place far more ethical and theological weight on the embryo than on those seeking assistance to ameliorate clinical fertility problems (D). The desire centred category (E) is common within secular thinking although there is morphing of D into some elements of E. Together they point to the multiplicity of ways in which traditional ethical boundaries have been challenged by some applications of the artificial reproductive technologies (ARTs). I suggest that Christian approval of the ARTs will be a circumspect approval, and will seek to grapple with questions of motivation, limits on ways in which the ARTs will be employed, the centrality of human relationships for decision-making, and the role of legitimate scientific investigation in understanding early human development. These considerations bear upon how Christians function in the public arena.

Keywords

IVF, Robert Edwards, human embryo, infertility, Roman Catholic responses, Protestant responses
D. GARETH JONESOctober2014262Free to view
ArticleObituary: Emeritus Professor Allan John Day (1927-2013)Professor Gordon Lynch Professor Stephen Harrap Dr Timothy Day Emeritus Professor John PilbrowOctober2014262Free to view
Book reviewIn the Eye of the Storm: The Autobiography of Sir John HoughtonSir John Houghton with Gill Tavner (David Gregory)October2014262Free to view
Book reviewIn Search of Self: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on PersonhoodJ. Wentzel van Huyssteen Erik P. Wiebe (eds.) (Malcolm Jeeves)October2014262Free to view
Book reviewBig Bang, Big God: A Universe Designed for Life?Rodney Holder (John Ling)October2014262Free to view
Book reviewHope in an Age of Despair: The Gospel and the Future of Life on EarthJonathan Moo Robert White (Dave Bookless)October2014262Free to view
Book reviewAugustine and ScienceJohn Doody Adam Goldstein Kim Paffenroth (eds.) (Ernest C. Lucas)October2014262Free to view
Book reviewWhy Religion is Natural and Science is NotRobert N. McCauley (James W. Jones)October2014262Free to view
Book reviewGod’s Biologist: A Life of Alister HardyDavid Hay (Jonathan Jong)October2014262Free to view
Book reviewEvolution and Belief: Confessions of a Religious PaleontologistRobert J. Asher (Simon Conway Morris)October2014262Free to view
Book reviewWhat the Heavens Declare: Science in the Light of CreationLydia Jaeger (William Simpson)October2014262Free to view
Book reviewIslam’s Quantum Question: Reconciling Muslim Tradition and Modern ScienceNidhal Guessoum (James Hannam)October2014262Free to view
Book reviewChimera’s Children: Ethical, Philosophical and Religious Perspectives on Human-Nonhuman ExperimentationCalum MacKellar David Albert Jones (eds.) (John Hodges)October2014262Free to view
Book reviewUnlocking Divine Action. Contemporary Science & Thomas AquinasMichael J. Dodds (Fintan Lyons)October2014262Free to view
Book reviewBeyond Human? Science and the Changing Face of HumanityJohn Bryant (Robin Gill)October2014262Free to view
Book reviewKneeling at the Altar of Science: The Mistaken Path of Contemporary Religious ScientismRobert Bolger (Taede A. Smedes)October2014262Free to view
Book reviewGood News for Science: Why scientific minds need GodDavis A. Young (Peter Lynch)October2014262Free to view
Book reviewDimensions of the Spirit: Science and the Work of the Holy SpiritEric William Middleton (Peter G.H. Clarke)October2014262Free to view
Book reviewMapping the Origins Debate: Six Models of the Beginning of EverythingGerald Rau (David Vosburg)October2014262Free to view
Book reviewThe Doors of the Sea – Where Was God in the Tsunami?David Bentley Hart (Tim Middleton)October2014262Free to view
Book reviewEvidence of God: A Scientific Case for GodNick Hawkes (John Pilbrow)October2014262Free to view
Book reviewScience, Religion and the Search for Extraterrestrial IntelligenceDavid Wilkinson (Ron Elsdon)October2014262Free to view
ArticleGuest Editorial: God and Science – Continuing Challenges and New OpportunitiesANDREW HALESTRAPApril2014261Free to view
ArticleNeuroscientific and psychological attacks on the efficacy of conscious will

Abstract

Neuroscience and psychology are increasingly being invoked to cast doubt on the fundamental intuition that our intentions and decisions are causally implicated in our behaviour. The initial attack was launched thirty years ago with the famous experiment of Benjamin Libet on the timing of decisions to perform simple movements. A second prong to the attack was launched in 2002 with the publication of social psychologist Daniel Wegner’s book, The Illusion of Conscious Will. I here summarise the intense debate that has resulted and argue that the anti-conscious-will lobby have failed to make an adequate case to justify their iconoclastic claim.

Keywords

Consciousness, will, brain, illusion, neuroscience, Libet, Wegner
PETER G.H. CLARKEApril2014261Free to view
ArticleThe Importance of the Church Fathers for Early Modern Astronomy

Abstract

This article deals with reservations several Church Fathers had to astronomy and the consequences that this had for early modern astronomy. In general, the Church Fathers criticised astronomy as vain curiosity that does Christians no good. I argue that when the early modern astronomers stressed the usefulness of their discipline, it was not an expression of a new utilitarian way of thinking, but an attempt to neutralise these theological objections by highlighting the religious, social and moral benefits of astronomy. The spirit of material utility for which modern science was reproached in the twentieth century originally emerged as a need to legitimise science against the objections of theology.

Keywords

Lactantius, Augustine, Ambrosius, Basil of Caesarea, the Church Fathers, curiosity, Copernicus, Kepler, early modern astronomy
DANIEL ŠPELDAApril2014261Free to view
ArticleDivining Darwin: Evolving Responses and the Contribution of David Lack

Abstract

Christian believers, particularly evangelicals, often react to evolutionary ideas with more heat than light. A significant contribution to clarifying understanding was a book published in 1957, Evolutionary Theory and Christian Belief by the eminent ornithologist David Lack. It was the first attempt to tease out the issues by a scientist of his calibre. Information about this book has recently been published in a biography of Lack. This essay seeks to put Lack’s contribution into the perspective of both past and continuing perceptions of Christianity and evolution.

Keywords

Darwin, Darwinism, Evolutionary Theory and Christian Belief, David Lack, Dan and Mary Neylan, C.S.Lewis, human nature, imago Dei
R. J. (SAM) BERRYApril2014261Free to view
DebateDoes a First Cause make sense any more? DAVID A. BOOTHApril2014261Free to view
DebateReply to comment from David BoothPETER J. BUSSEYApril2014261Free to view
ArticleObituary: Oliver Barclay (1919-2013)Sam BerryApril2014261Free to view
ArticleSome key issues in the Science and Faith debate

Abstract

The following was written by Oliver Barclay in 1987 as an introduction to a booklet of edited articles entitled ‘Science and Christian Belief’. Many of these points are still relevant today and this article is reprinted here with permission.
OLIVER BARCLAYApril2014261Free to view
Book reviewThe Oxford Handbook of Natural TheologyRussell Re Manning (ed.), (Roger Trigg)April2014261Free to view
Book reviewThe Isaac Newton Guide BookDenis Alexander (ed.), (Allan Chapman)April2014261Free to view
Book reviewScience and Belief: The Big IssuesRussell Stannard, (Hilary Marlow)April2014261Free to view
ArticleEditorialKeith FoxOctober2013252Free to view
ArticleHumility: A Neglected Scientific Virtue?

Abstract

This brief paper argues for the need to reinstate humility as a key virtue in the lives of scientists who are also Christians. In a world where the scientific enterprise increasingly lacks an agreed moral compass, as evidenced by the mounting number of cases of scientific misconduct coming to light, it seems incumbent on Christians to demonstrate Christ-likeness in their professional lives. Of all the Christian virtues humility is perhaps the one that most clearly distinguishes (or should distinguish) the believer from the world, whether that is the world of science or of daily life. Furthermore, humility may allow the scientist to avoid or overcome the temptations and the dangers of hubris associated with the scientific life.

Keywords

virtue, science, engineering, technology, humility
Meric SrokoszOctober2013252Free to view
ArticleDisputing Evolution Encourages Environmental Neglect

Abstract

Doubts about evolution rumble on interminably in some Christian circles, despite virtual unanimity in the scientific community about the main features of evolutionary change and their mechanism(s). The reason for such debates seems to be a laudable desire to keep God implicated in the world he made. The irony is that this effort is unnecessary; it involves a misapprehension of God’s creating and sustaining activity, as well as almost certainly alienating outsiders – as Augustine pointed out sixteen centuries ago. But more far-reaching is the likelihood that it spawns an inadequate doctrine of creation and distracts attention from the biblical mandate of creation care. Has the time come to boldly go and take more seriously the admonition of Charles Darwin in the Origin of Species (quoting Francis Bacon) that ‘no-one out of a weak conceit of sobriety should think or maintain that he can search too far or be too well studied in the book of God’s word or in the book of God’s words [divinity or science], but that all should endeavour an endless proficiency in both’?

Keywords

evolution, Darwinism, dualism, creation care, God’s Two Books
R.J. (SAM) BERRYOctober2013252Free to view
ArticleRethinking the Historical Fall in the Light of Evolution: F.R. Tennant and After

Abstract

Arguably F.R. Tennant played a pivotal role in precipitating academic discussion about the Fall and evolution between 1902 and 1939. This article outlines his proposals and explores the principal conversation partners during this period, showing that, whether in support of the Fall or opposed to it, they were spurred into contributing to the debate in direct response to Tennant’s pioneering writings.

Keywords

Tennant, Barnes, Chesterton, Micklem, von Hügel, evolution, original sin, fall, theodicy
JONATHAN W. CHAPPELLOctober2013252Free to view
DebateIndividual Identity and Accountability in a Level 1 MultiverseGAVIN MERRIFIELDOctober2013252Free to view
DebateResponse to Gavin MerrifieldJOHN TURLOctober2013252Free to view
DebateResponse to John Turl and Gavin MerrifieldDON PAGEOctober2013252Free to view
ArticleObituary: Professor Colin A. Russell, DSc, FRSC (1928-2013)John Hedley Brooke Michael PooleOctober2013252Free to view
Book reviewThe Blackwell Companion to Science and ChristianityJ. B. Stump Alan G. Padgett (eds.) (Keith Fox)October2014252Free to view
Book reviewScience and Religion in Quest of TruthJohn Polkinghorne (Lawrence Osborn)October2013252Free to view
Book reviewSpiritual Healing: Scientific and Religious PerspectivesFraser Watts (ed.) (David Girling)October2013252Free to view
Book reviewDarwin’s Pious Idea: Why the Ultra-Darwinists and Creationists Both Get It WrongConor Cunningham (David Lahti)October2013252Free to view
Book reviewMiracles: The Credibility of the New Testament Accounts. Volumes 1 and 2Craig S. Keener (Tony Costa)October2013252Free to view
Book reviewSupercooperators – Evolution, Altruism and Human Behaviour (or Why we need others to succeed)Martin Nowak with Roger Highfield (Simon Kolstoe)October2013252Free to view
Book reviewThe Cognitive Science of ReligionJames A. Van Slyke (Taede A. Smedes)October2013252Free to view
Book reviewGod and the Cosmos: Divine Activity in Space, Time and HistoryHarry Lee Poe Jimmy H. Davis (Paul Wraight)October2013252Free to view
Book reviewGod and the Scientist: Exploring the Work of John PolkinghorneFraser Watts Christopher C. Knight (eds.) (P. Douglas Kindschi)October2013252Free to view
Book reviewThe Spirit in Creation and New Creation: Science and Theology in Western and Orthodox RealmsMichael Welker (ed.) (James Orr)October2013252Free to view
Book reviewCognitive Biology: Dealing with Information from Bacteria to MindsGennaro Auletta (Andrew Robinson)October2013252Free to view
Book reviewScience and the Eastern Orthodox Church: Historical and Current PerspectivesDaniel Buxhoeveden Gayle Woloschak (eds.) (Alexei Nesteruk)October2013252Free to view
Book reviewGod and Science in Classroom and PulpitGraham Buxton Chris Mulherin Mark Worthing (Berry Billingsley)October2013252Free to view
Book reviewWisdom, Science and the Scriptures: Essays in Honour of Ernest LucasStephen Finamore John Weaver (eds.) (Peter Lynch)October2013252Free to view
Book reviewThe Wonder of the Universe: Hints of God in Our Fine-Tuned WorldKarl W. Giberson (Steve Bishop)October2013252Free to view
Book reviewThe Second-Person Perspective in Aquinas’s Ethics: Virtues and GiftsAndrew Pinsent (Andrei I. Holodny)October2013252Free to view
Book reviewGeorges Lemaître: Life, Science and LegacyRodney D. Holder Simon Mitton (eds.) (Paul Wraight)October2013252Free to view
Book reviewDelight in Creation: Scientists Share Their Work with the ChurchDeborah Haarsma Scott Hoezee (eds.) (R.J. [Sam] Berry)October2013252Free to view
ArticleEditorial: A Change of EditorDenis AlexanderApril2013251Free to view
ArticleScience and Religion in the Writings of C.S. Lewis

Abstract

Although he was a literary historian, not a scientist, C.S. Lewis has much to say of interest regarding the interface between science and religion because of his scholarly study of the sixteenth century and, in particular, of the imaginative effects of the Copernican revolution. He regards science, properly speaking, as a subset of religion. He believes science to be a fundamentally imaginative enterprise. He argues that scientific statements, because they tend to be univocal and strive to be verifiable, are actually rather small statements, all things considered. He argues that there is always a mythology that follows in the wake of science and that both scientists and non-scientists should take care not to put excessive weight on particular scientific metaphors. We should hold our scientific paradigms with a due provisionality, because new evidence may always turn up to overthrow those paradigms. Even the best and most long-lasting paradigm is merely a lens or linguistic stencil laid over reality, not reality itself.

Keywords

C.S. Lewis, science, religion, Copernicus, reason, imagination, language, Middle Ages, meaning, mythology
Michael WardApril2013251Free to view
ArticleGod as First Cause – a Review of the Kalam Argument

Abstract

The Kalam argument for God states in its traditional form that everything that comes into being must have a cause; thus, the universe has come into being and so must have a cause, which is surely God. This argument apparently relies on the universe not being infinitely old. Modern reiterations of this position, especially as advocated by William Lane Craig, assert that physical infinities are not acceptable and that the universe is in any case not infinitely old. Here I review this position. Quantum physics, it seems, enables a causal ‘arrow of time’ to be identified better than classical physics does, making better sense of the idea of a First Cause. There are indeed serious problems with physical infinities, implying that an argument for an infinitely old universe has to be rigorously stated. The most important modern cosmological models are discussed. Considerations involving increase in entropy production, stability and the Borde-Guth-Vilenkin theorem suggest that the universe or any time-extended cosmos is very likely to have had a start in time. From this it follows that the Kalam argument holds, but it should also be seen in the context of wider theological viewpoints.

Keywords

God, causation, First Cause, Universe, Kalam, William Lane Craig, Big Bang, physical infinity, paradox
Peter J. BusseyApril2013251Free to view
ArticleScience and the Eastern Orthodox Church: Historical and Current Perspectives

Abstract

Current trends in Orthodox theological writing challenge the traditional Western popular perception of the Eastern variant of Christianity as little more than exotic and heretical. Nowhere is this more evident than in the increasing acceptance of and developing involvement in contemporary scientific debate. While a minority of Orthodox writers remain essentially anti-scientific in attitude and others are suspiciously cautious, there are those whose assessment of the Western science faith dialogue is altogether more positive. Indeed, Eastern Orthodox Christianity has a key role to play in developing theological responses to the sciences – responses that can be identified as having their roots in the rich heritage of Orthodoxy itself.

Keywords

Orthodox tradition, patristic writings, logos, natural theology, panentheism, God’s immanence, pansacramentalism
Christopher C. KnightApril2013251Free to view
Book reviewReclaiming GenesisMelvin Tinker (Ernest Lucas)April2013251Free to view
Book reviewScience and the Spirit: A Pentecostal Engagement With the SciencesJames K. A. Smith Amos Yong [eds.] (John Bryant)April2013251Free to view
Book reviewKeeping God’s Earth: the Global Environment in Biblical PerspectiveNoah J. Toly Daniel I. Block [eds.] (Graham Nevin)April2013251Free to view
Book reviewOn Being: A Scientist’s Exploration of the Great Questions of ExistencePeter Atkins (Philip H. Bligh)April2013251Free to view
Book reviewThe Heavens Declare: Natural Theology and the Legacy of Karl BarthRodney Holder (David Girling)April2013251Free to view
Book reviewEmergence in Science and Philosophy: Routledge Studies in the Philosophy of Science 6Antonella Corradini Timothy O’Connor [eds.] (Amos Yong)April2013251Free to view
Book reviewTheological Anthropology, A Guide for the PerplexedMarc Cortez (Peter G.H. Clarke)April2013251Free to view
Book reviewCreation and the God of AbrahamDavid B. Burrell Carlo Cogliati Janet M. Soskice William R. Stoeger [eds.] (Ignacio Silva)April2013251Free to view
Book reviewDecoding the Language of God – Can a Scientist Really Be A Believer? A Geneticist Responds to Francis CollinsGeorge Cunningham (Andrew Bowie)April2013251Free to view
Book reviewThe Language of Science and FaithKarl W. Giberson Francis S. Collins (Gavin Merrifield)April2013251Free to view
Book reviewEcological Hermeneutics: Biblical, Historical and Theological PerspectivesDavid G. Horrell, Cherryl Hunt Christopher Southgate Francesca Stavrakopoulou [ed.] (Jonathan Moo)April2013251Free to view
Book reviewRethinking Human Nature: A Multidisciplinary ApproachMalcolm Jeeves [ed.] (Calum Miller)April2013251Free to view
Book reviewThe Fallacy of Fine Tuning: Why the universe is not designed for usVictor J. Stenger (Paul Wraight)April2013251Free to view
Book reviewTeaching Religion and Science: Effective Pedagogy and Practical Approaches for RE TeachersTonie Stolberg Geoff Teece (John Ling)April2013251Free to view
Book reviewThe Lost World of Genesis One: Ancient Cosmology and the Origins DebateJohn H. Walton (Gordon Wenham)April2013251Free to view
Book reviewAm I My Keeper’s Brother: Human Origins from a Christian and Scientific PerspectivePhilip Pattemore (Ken Mickleson)April2013251Free to view
Book reviewBiological Evolution: Facts and Theories. A Critical Appraisal 150 Years After ‘The Origin of Species’Gennaro Auletta Marc Leclerc Rafael A. Martínez (R J [Sam] Berry)April2013251Free to view
Book reviewReligion and Ecology in the Public SphereDeane-Drummond Heinrich Bedford-Strohm [eds.] (Ron Elsdon)April2013251Free to view
Book reviewThe New Sciences of Religion: Exploring Spirituality from the Outside In and Bottom UpWilliam Grassie (Robert Stening)April2013251Free to view
Book reviewSeven Days That Divide the World: The Beginning According to Genesis and ScienceJohn C. Lennox (Robert Stening)April2013251Free to view
Book reviewThe God Species: How the Planet Can Survive the Age of HumansMark Lynas (Colin Bell)April2013251Free to view
Book reviewChristianity in Evolution. An ExplorationJack Mahoney (Fintan Lyons)April2013251Free to view
Book reviewAtoms and Eden: Conversations on Religion and ScienceSteve Paulson (Keith Fox)April2013251Free to view
Book reviewWhere the Conflict Really Lies: Science, Religion, and NaturalismAlvin Plantinga (Jonathan Jong)April2013251Free to view
Book reviewIs Religion Irrational?Keith Ward (William Simpson)April2013251Free to view
Book reviewThe Lion Handbook of Science & ChristianityR. J. Berry [ed.] (Tim Middleton)April2013251Free to view
Book reviewEcology and the Environment: The Mechanisms, Marring, and Maintenance of NatureR. J. Berry (Malcolm S. Buchanan)April2013251Free to view
Book reviewScience and Religion Around the WorldJohn Hedley Brooke Ronald L. Numbers (James Hannam)April2013251Free to view
Book reviewAtheism’s New Clothes: Exploring and Exposing the Claims of the New AtheistsDavid H. Glass (Paul Wraight)April2013251Free to view
Book reviewThe Mystery of the Last Supper: Reconstructing the Final Days of JesusColin J. Humphreys (Peter Walker)April2013251Free to view
Book reviewMonopolizing Knowledge: A Scientist Refutes Religion-Denying, Reason-Destroying ScientismIan Hutchinson (Meric Srokosz)April2013251Free to view
Book reviewGod in the Age of Science? A Critique of Religious ReasonHerman Philipse (Patrick Richmond)April2013251Free to view
ArticleEditorial - Science, Religion and AtheismDenis AlexanderOctober2012242Free to view
ArticleFrom Physics to Theology - A Personal StoryJÜrgen MoltmannOctober2012242Free to view
ArticleLemaitre and Hoyle: Contrasting Characters in Science and Religion

Abstract

Georges Lemaitre was a jocular Roman Catholic priest and Fred Hoyle a bluff Yorkshireman who despised organised religion. Both were giants of twentieth century cosmology but espoused diametrically opposed cosmological models. This paper explores the extent to which ideology, and particularly religion, played a part in the controversies over the Big Bang and steady-state theories. A significant problem for many cosmologists, including Hoyle, was posed by the idea that the universe had a temporal beginning: an eternal, unchanging universe seemed metaphysically preferable. And Hoyle was highly polemical about religion in his popular writings. In contrast, Lemaitre saw no theological import from the Big Bang, and never entered a debate about its theological implications until, perhaps unexpectedly, he took issue with an address given by the Pope. Hoyle's seminal work on stellar nucleosynthesis led him to speak of a 'superintellect monkeying with physics' though this was never identified with the God of classical theism. The work of both Lemaitre and Hoyle resonates with more recent debates concerning cosmology.

Keywords

Lemaitre, Hoyle, Big Bang, steady-state theory, cosmology, creation
Rodney HolderOctober2012242Free to view
ArticleLimits of Science and the Christian Faith

Abstract

This paper is a discussion of the claim that, given the findings of science, the rational stance to take towards Christian belief is either to abandon it or to reform it drastically. It is argued that science has a number of limits, and that when these are taken into serious consideration, the claim loses much of its force.

Keywords

philosophy of science, epistemology, rationality, Christian belief
René Van WoudenbergOctober2012242Free to view
ArticleDoes the History of Science and Religion Change Depending on the Narrator? Some Atheist and Agnostic Perspectives

Abstract

During the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries the strategy of unbelievers revolved around attempting, without too much success, to draw out of Newtonianism some kind of justification for their materialism and their atheism. This affected how they viewed the historical relations between science and religion. But after the publication of The Origin of Species in 1859, evolutionary theory offered new opportunities for unbelievers for dealing with the Newton problem. It allowed them to create a new vision of science from the ground up using evolution, and not Newtonian physics, as their starting point. By separating science and religion into two separate spheres, they were now free to construct a religiously neutral scientific system and to offer a re-interpretation of the history of science and religion that relegated Newtonianism to the sidelines. But, in contrast to contemporary unbelievers, they saw themselves as agnostics who valued religion as an intrinsic dimension of the human condition.

Keywords

Newton, Voltaire, Holbach, Tyndall, Huxley, atheism, agnosticism
Bernard LightmanOctober2012242Free to view
ArticleCreation Care: Stewardship or What?

Abstract

There are practical and urgent reasons for treating our environment sensibly, but there are also theological ones which underpin them. Our environment is God’s creation. How Christians regard and treat their environment ultimately depends on their understanding of the creative and sustaining work of God. A valid ecotheology must involve the study of God’s Book of Words (the Bible) and his Book of Works (Creation, which we learn about from ecological and environmental science). This essay reviews and puts into this context a number of recent books on the subject of creation care.

Keywords

creation, environment, ecology, stewardship, ecotheology
R J BerryOctober2012242Free to view
Book reviewEncountering Scripture: A Scientist Explores the BibleJohn Polkinghorne (Hilary Marlow)October2012242Free to view
Book reviewThe Trinity and an Entangled World: Relationality in Physical Science and TheologyJohn Polkinghorne (ed. (Peter Bussey)October2012242Free to view
Book reviewHuman Identity at the Intersection of Science, Technology and ReligionNancey Murphy Christopher C. Knight (eds.) (Paul N. Markham)October2012242Free to view
Book reviewNew Proofs for the Existence of God: Contributions of Contemporary Physics and PhilosophyRobert J Spitzer (David Watts)October2012242Free to view
Book reviewMore than Matter? What Humans Really AreKeith Ward (Peter Hampson)October2012242Free to view
ArticleGuest Editorial: Science and theology in the non-Western worldRoss McKenzieApril2012241Free to view
ArticleAquinas and Contemporary Cosmology: Creation and Beginnings

Abstract

Discussions in the Middle Ages about creation and the temporal beginning of the world involved sophisticated analyses in theology, metaphysics and natural philosophy. Medieval insights on this subject, especially Thomas Aquinas’s defence of the intelligibility of an eternal, created universe, can help to clarify reflections about the philosophical and theological implications of contemporary cosmological theories: from the ‘singularity’ of the Big Bang, to ‘quantum tunnelling from nothing’, to multiverse scenarios. This paper looks at different senses of ‘beginning’ and argues that creation, in its fundamental, philosophical meaning, tells us nothing about whether there is a temporal beginning to the universe. Multiverse models, like that recently proposed by Stephen Hawking and Leonard Mlodinow, may challenge certain views of a Grand Designer, but not of a Creator.

Keywords

cosmology, creation, multiverses, Aquinas, Big Bang, quantum tunnelling, ex nihilo
William E. CarrollApril2012241Free to view
ArticleJohn Polkinghorne on Divine Action: a Coherent Theological Evolution

Abstract

I examine John Polkinghorne's account of how God acts in the world, focusing on how his ideas developed with the consideration of the notion of kenosis, and how this development was not a rejection of his previous ideas, but on the contrary a fulfilling of his own personal philosophical and theological insights. Polkinghorne's thought can be distinguished in three different periods:1) divine action as input of active information (1988-2000/2001);2) Polkinghorne's reception of the notion of kenosis (2000-2004);3) Polkinghorne's 'thought experiment' approach to his ideas on divine action (2004- ). Finally, I consider the question of internal coherence of this theological development, focusing on the transition from the first to the second period, which I believe to be the most significant.

Keywords

John Polkinghorne, divine action, input of active information, kenosis
Ignacio SilvaApril2012241Free to view
ArticleDivine Action - Some CommentsJohn PolkinghorneApril2012241Free to view
ArticleThe Emergent, Self-explaining Universe of Paul Davies - a Summary and Christian Response

Abstract

Physicist Paul Davies has emerged as one of the most popular scientists of the twenty-first century, despite his critique of the scientific establishment and its perceived failure to account for the origins and rational nature of the universe. Davies argues that the scientific consensus on cosmology rests on faith, both in its failure to provide an ultimate explanation for the origin of the universe and in its blind acceptance of its rational laws. As an alternative, Davies postulates an 'emergent' universe which contains the cause of its own existence and which renders unnecessary any sort of a personal deity. Yet Davies's alternative falls short of providing a satisfactory cosmic explanation. Davies himself cannot adequately account for the principle of backward causation which creates his universe, and thus his paradigm still relies on a transcendent principle that remains unexplained. Furthermore, Davies's objections against a personal god can be answered on philosophical grounds. Thus Davies's hypothesis does not provide a superior alternative to the Christian view of God.

Keywords

Paul Davies, physics, universe, emergent, self-causation, quantum mechanics, cosmology, time, teleology, cosmological argument, fine-tuning
Paul HimesApril2012241Free to view
ArticleDo Many Worlds Make Light Work?

Abstract

In the light of the lessons of history following the work of such scientists as Copernicus and Darwin, Christian scientists may be wary of condemning scientific theories as unscriptural or unchristian. Nevertheless it is not inconceivable that, as physics becomes entwined with cosmology, some physical theories or metatheories will eventually conflict with some key Christian doctrines. Multiverse theories are no longer merely the stuff of science fiction but are regarded by some physicists as logical extensions of viable theories and by others as fanciful speculation. Whereas attention so far has focused on their ability to solve the fine-tuning problem, this article examines some of the theological implications should one or more of them be considered valid.

Keywords

creation, everything, fine-tuning, gap, multiverse, random, universe, worlds
John TurlApril2012241Free to view
DebateResponse to Peter Clarke on 'Determinism, Brain Function and Free Will'Michael BrownnuttApril2012241Free to view
DebateIndeterminism Beyond HeisenbergPeter G.H. ClarkeApril2012241Free to view
Book reviewQuantum Leap: How John Polkinghorne found God in Science and ReligionDean Nelson Karl Giberson (Michael Poole)April2012241Free to view
Book reviewThe Polkinghorne ReaderThomas Jay Oord (ed.) (Peter Mc Carthy)April2012241Free to view
Book reviewA Sceptic's Guide to AtheismPeter S. Williams (Ken Mickleson)April2012241Free to view
Book reviewBiblical Prophets and Contemporary Environmental Ethics: Re-Reading Amos, Hosea, and First IsaiahHilary Marlow (Cherryl Hunt)April2012241Free to view
Book reviewAtheist Delusions: The Christian Revolution and Its Fashionable EnemiesDavid Bentley Hart (Rodney Holder)April2012241Free to view
Book reviewThe Cambridge Companion to Science and ReligionPeter Harrison (ed.) (Jeremy Law)April2012241Free to view
Book reviewScience and Religion: Understanding the IssuesNancy Morvillo (John Weaver)April2012241Free to view
ArticleEditorial: Looking Backwards and Looking ForwardsDenis AlexanderOctober2011232Free to view
ArticleEarly Modern Biblical Interpretation and the Emergence of ScienceScott MandelbroteOctober2011232Free to view
Article‘Good Death’: a Common Pattern in the Evolution of Mathematics, Science and Biological Organisms

Abstract

Drawing from experience of pure mathematical and historical research, this paper investigates the formation and development of mathematical concepts, and explores the way such a communal creative enterprise evolves. These insights are used to look again at biological evolution and scientific theory-selection. On turning round the metaphor ‘red in tooth and claw’ that is sometimes applied to nature and to competing scientific theories and contrasting the two images, compost heap and scrap heap, a common pattern emerges of forms of ‘self-giving’ operating within a framework of co-creative competition. Images of ‘self-giving’, and even of ‘sacrifice’, are found in the evolution of the cosmos, of living organisms, of scientific theories, of mathematical concepts. In each there is the passing, or ‘death’, of the old, not just to make way but to prepare the way for, and to be subsumed into, the ‘life’ of the new. Use is made of Austin Farrer’s theology of ‘a world made to make itself’, and his insistence on the centrality of self-giving in the economy of God’s world.

Keywords

mathematics, concept-formation, theory-selection, evolution, death, self-giving, sacrifice
Gavin HitchcockOctober2011232Free to view
ArticleScience and Eschatology in the Open Universe

Abstract

This article explores possibilities of a rapprochement between Christian eschatology and the scientific enquiry into the future of the universe through a discussion of contemporary literature from three fields: a. data from the natural sciences about the universe, its development and future, b. research on the relationship between mind and body, and c. theology and the study of divine action. The article argues for an interdisciplinary approach to eschatology in which the overall perspective of an open (that is, not completely deterministic) universe is taken into account. The second part of the article consists of a set of ‘eschatological options’, that is, possible relationships among these three sets of data as found in the still quite scarce literature on eschatology and science, what they might imply for the future of humanity and the universe, and what ethical and eschato-practical consequences they entail

Keywords

eschatology, future of the universe, mind-body relationship, miracle, indeterminism, thermodynamics, emergence, fine-tuning, incompleteness, open universe
Daniel SaudekOctober2011232Free to view
ArticleNuclear Power and Energy Sustainability

Abstract

Nuclear energy is assuming more importance in energy policies worldwide due to its basic economics coupled with energy security concerns and popular interest in reducing carbon dioxide emissions from electricity production. Its performance characteristics suit it best to continuous, reliable supply of electricity on a large scale. Its physics enable control of reactions in both moderated and fast neutron configurations. On all these fronts, having this mature technology (with over 14,500 reactor-years of civil operation in 32 countries) available at this particular time can be considered indicative of God’s providence in the sense of liberality of provision for human needs. The paper relates this serendipitous situation to God’s creation and addresses some common concerns. The paper contends that Christian stewardship of God’s creation in applying its bounty to human needs appropriately involves utilising nuclear power more widely, among many other things.

Keywords

energy, nuclear, uranium, fission, neutron, stewardship of creation
Ian Hore-LacyOctober2011232Free to view
Book reviewScience and Religious Anthropology: a spiritually evocative naturalist interpretation of human lifeWesley J. Wildman (Patrick Richmond)October2011232Free to view
Book reviewScience and Religion: New Historical PerspectivesThomas Dixon Geoffrey Cantor Stephen Pumfrey (eds.) (James Hannam)October2011232Free to view
Book reviewSCM Core Text: Christianity and ScienceJohn Weaver (Andrew Bowie)October2011232Free to view
Book reviewReason, Faith, and Revolution – Reflections on the God DebateTerry Eagleton (Denis Alexander)October2011232Free to view
Book reviewThe God of Nature: Incarnation and Contemporary ScienceChristopher Knight (Christopher Southgate)October2011232Free to view
Book reviewDarwin, Creation and the Fall – Theological ChallengesR.J. Berry T.A. Noble (eds.) (Simon Kolstoe)October2011232Free to view
Book reviewScience vs. Religion: What Scientists Really ThinkElaine Howard Ecklund (Nick Spencer)October2011232Free to view
Book reviewHow God Acts: Creation, Redemption and Special Divine ActsDenis Edwards (John Pilbrow)October2011232Free to view
Book reviewMaking Sense of Evolution: Darwin, God and the Drama of LifeJohn F. Haught (Celia Deane-Drummond)October2011232Free to view
Book reviewBoyle: Between God and ScienceMichael Hunter (Allan Chapman)October2011232Free to view
Book reviewGeology and Religion: A History of Harmony and HostilityKölbl-Ebert, M. (ed.) (Ron Elsdon)October2011232Free to view
Book reviewConceiving God: The Cognitive Origin and Evolution of ReligionDavid Lewis-Williams (Justin L. Barrett)October2011232Free to view
ArticleEditorial: The Bible, Ethics and the New AtheismRodney D. HolderApril2011231Free to view
ArticleMystery and Ignorance

Abstract

This essay considers the difference between mystery and ignorance, where mystery is understood as that which cannot be comprehended by the human intellect. Confusion between these two categories may be an important element in the alleged conflict between religion and science. Different types of mystery are considered, some of which can be associated with experiences with religious overtones while others are of a more secular nature; these I call strong and everyday mystery respectively. In particular, we consider the view of Einstein that contemplation of the physical universe and its laws can generate exceptionally strong feelings of mystery. Although science is very accomplished at removing ignorance, mystery still remains after this has been achieved, and elements of mystery are a proper component of both religion and secular personal existence. I examine critically the world-view of rationalism, given that many affirmed rationalists see rational knowledge as being opposed both to mystery and religion. I argue that this is an erroneous position compounded by a confusion between ignorance and mystery. Some suggestions concerning how we relate to mystery in our lives are presented, together with a brief discussion of apophatic theology.

Keywords

mystery, ignorance, religion, rationality, rationalism, science, Einstein, Russell, apophatic theology
Peter J. BusseyApril2011231Free to view
ArticleTheodicy and Geodesy: Who Is to Blame?

Abstract

The Christian faith is often questioned when disasters happen. Undoubtedly some people do not want answers so much as to justify unbelief. It is the conviction of the author that many ‘know not what they ask’ and ‘do not stay for an answer’. Presumptions are made concerning God’s nature that need to be either stated or queried, and assumptions made concerning the wisdom and consequences of intervention. The haste with which disasters are labelled ‘acts of God’ is a sad reflection on the human tendency to deny responsibility, even where the evidence is to the contrary. This article examines some possible responses to such challenges.

Keywords

disaster, earthquake, evil, free will, Haiti, responsibility
John TurlApril2011231Free to view
CorrespondenceTheistic evolution and the FallDermot O'CallaghanApril2011231Free to view
CorrespondenceUser’s Guide to Science and BeliefM.W.PooleApril2011231Free to view
ArticleAdam or Adamah?

Abstract

Many – perhaps most – commentators on the creation story in Genesis accept the conventional scientific understanding that at least several hundred hominids formed the ancestral group which gave rise to modern humankind, treating ‘Adam’ as a metaphor for this group and using the word as a play on adamah, which means ‘from the earth’. This is consistent as far as it goes, but it has the danger of being subservient to science and requiring hermeneutical gymnastics to accommodate robust interpretations of the relevance of the ‘Fall story’ and original sin, especially the force of Paul’s analogy in Romans 5:12-19 between the ‘first man’ and the ‘last man’. These difficulties disappear if we treat Adam as an individual imbued with God’s image, which does not spread through conventional Mendelian mechanisms, but depends on and is transmitted by God’s divine (and mysterious) action; God’s image in us reflects our relationship with him, which can be broken (as it was in the ‘Fall’), but is restored when we are ‘in Christ’. Our role on Earth is to foster this God-given relationship and the responsibilities implicit in caring for our fellows and other parts of creation.

Keywords

human evolution, Adam, adamah, Fall, federal head, imago Dei, Darwinism, original sin
R. J. BerryApril2011231Free to view
CorrespondenceA Response to Dermot O’CallaghanR J BerryApril2011231Free to view
Book reviewNature and Scripture in the Abrahamic ReligionsJitse M. van der Meer Scott Mandelbrote (eds.) (Ernan McMullin)April2011231Free to view
Book reviewThe Groaning of Creation: God, Evolution, and the Problem of EvilChristopher Southgate (Lawrence Osborn)April2011231Free to view
Book reviewIn Reckless Hands: Skinner v. Oklahoma and the Near Triumph of American EugenicsVictoria F. Nourse (Edward J. Larson)April2011231Free to view
Book reviewTeaching About Scientific Origins – Taking Account of Creationism, Volume 277, Counterpoints series – Studies in the Postmodern Theory of EducationLeslie S Jones Michael J. Reiss (eds.) (John Ling)April2011231Free to view
Book reviewAgainst Atheism. Why Dawkins, Hitchens and Harris Are Fundamentally WrongIan S. Markham (Peter Bussey)April2011231Free to view
Book reviewHorizons of Cosmology: Exploring Worlds Seen and UnseenJoseph Silk (Paul Wraight)April2011231Free to view
Book reviewThe Grand Design: New Answers to the Ultimate Questions of LifeStephen Hawking Leonard Mlodinow (Rodney Holder)April2011231Free to view
Book reviewCreationism and its Critics in AntiquityDavid Sedley (Simon Mitton)April2011231Free to view
Book reviewDebating Darwin. Two Debates: Is Darwinism True & Does it Matter?Graeme Finlay Stephen Lloyd Stephen Pattemore David Swift (Simon Kolstoe)April2011231Free to view
Book reviewThe Lost World of Genesis One: Ancient Cosmology and the Origins DebateJohn H. Walton (Ernest Lucas)April2011231Free to view
Book reviewI Love Jesus & I Accept EvolutionDenis Lamoureux (Graeme Finlay)April2011231Free to view
Book reviewDarwin and GodNick Spencer (John Spicer)April2011231Free to view
Book reviewBiology and Ideology from Descartes to DawkinsDenis Alexander Ronald Numbers (eds.) (Andrew Halestrap)April2011231Free to view
Book reviewTheology After DarwinMichael S. Northcott R.J. Berry (eds.) (Celia Deane-Drummond)April2011231Free to view
Book reviewGod, ethics and the human genomeMark Bratton (ed.) (John Bryant)April2011231Free to view
Book reviewA Second Genesis: Stepping-stones Towards the Intelligibility of NatureJulian Chela-Flores (Meric Srokosz)April2011231Free to view
Book reviewReligion-And-Science as Spiritual Quest for MeaningPhilip Hefner (Louise Hickman)April2011231Free to view
ArticleGuest Editorial - A Christian Perspective on Human EnhancementD. GARETH JONESOctober2010222Free to view
ArticleVictor Stenger’s Scientific Critique of Christian Belief

Abstract

In two recent books, Victor Stenger claims to show that, using the scientific method, it is possible to show that the ‘God Hypothesis’ must be rejected. To a large extent his refutation is based on the use of ideas of statistical inference. The purpose of this paper is to show that the scientific method is incapable of achieving the goals set for it by Stenger and that, in particular cases, his use of it is fallacious. We deal first with intercessory prayer experiments and then with his understanding of statistical significance, meta-analysis and scientific sampling. In conclusion it is pointed out that a rigorous use of scientific method must include all the evidence which, in the case of Christianity, involves a serious examination of the evidence relating to the incarnation.

Keywords

design of experiments, incarnation, meta-analysis, observational data, prayer, scientific sampling, significance testing, Stenger
DAVID J. BARTHOLOMEWOctober2010222Free to view
ArticleDeterminism, Brain Function and Free Will

Abstract

The philosophical debate about determinism and free will is far from being resolved. Most philosophers (including Christians) are either compatibilists, asserting that determinism is compatible with free will, or libertarians, arguing that free will requires a fundamental indeterminism in nature, and in particular in brain function. Most libertarians invoke Heisenbergian uncertainty as the required indeterminism. The present paper, by a neurobiologist, examines these issues in relationship to biblical teaching on the brain-soul relationship. It distinguishes different levels of determinism, including genetic and environmental determinism, and argues that these are incomplete, whereas the physical (or ‘Laplacian’) determinism of brain function is almost total. In particular, it is argued that the attempt to support the libertarian concept of free will on the foundation of Heisenbergian uncertainty applied to the brain is problematic for both conceptual and quantitative reasons.

Keywords

free will, brain, neuroscience, quantum theory, soul, monism, dualism
PETER G. H. CLARKEOctober2010222Free to view
ArticleWhy Christian Theology Should Accept that Miracles Occur

Abstract

In this article I argue that Christian theology, in order to be sufficiently coherent, should claim that miracles, like those described in the New Testament, do occur. I discuss first an argument by Wolfhart Pannenberg that any theory of God must be based on revelation, and suggest an improvement to Pannenberg’s line of reasoning. Presupposing that Christian theology must hold that God has revealed himself decisively through Christ, I then discuss whether or not Christian theology can reject that miracles happen. Based on arguments from the discussion of Pannenberg, I argue – against scholars like David Griffin and Arthur Peacocke – that Christian theology should accept that miracles occur in order to be sufficiently coherent. The reason for this is that if miracles do not happen it is more coherent to believe that God is not revealed decisively through Christ, than to believe that he is.

Keywords

miracles, revelation, Pannenberg, Griffin, Peacocke
ATLE OTTESEN SØVIKOctober2010222Free to view
ArticleOBITUARY: Donald Wiseman [1918-2010]Denis AlexanderOctober2010222Free to view
CorrespondenceA soul alive in ChristDAVID BOOTHOctober2010222Free to view
CorrespondenceA Response to David BoothJOHN TURLOctober2010222Free to view
CorrespondenceDualism that makes contact with sciencePETER CLARKEOctober2010222Free to view
CorrespondenceScientific explanations of religious experience?C.J. SCHORAHOctober2010222Free to view
CorrespondenceA Response to C.J. SchorahPATRICK RICHMONDOctober2010222Free to view
Book reviewScience and Religion – A Very Short IntroductionThomas Dixon (Andrew Halestrap)October2010222Free to view
Book reviewThe Faith of Scientists in their Own WordsNancy K. Frankenberry (Peter Lynch)October2010222Free to view
Book reviewWhy Evolution is TrueJerry A Coyne (Ken Mickleson)October2010222Free to view
Book reviewThink God, Think Science: Conversations on Life, the Universe and FaithMichael Pfundner Ernest Lucas (Owen Thurtle)October2010222Free to view
Book reviewGod and Evolution: A ReaderMary Kathleen Cunningham (ed.) (James Crocker)October2010222Free to view
Book reviewDarwin and Catholicism: the Past and Present Dynamics of a Cultural EncounterLouis Caruana (ed.) (Cyprian Love)October2010222Free to view
Book reviewA Tangled Web: Medicine and Theology in DialogueR. John Elford D. Gareth Jones (eds.) (John Bryant)October2010222Free to view
Book reviewEntropic Creation: Religious Contexts of Thermodynamics and CosmologyHelge S. Kragh (Mark McCartney)October2010222Free to view
Book reviewThe Creation: An Appeal to Save Life on EarthEdward O. Wilson (Jonathan Moo)October2010222Free to view
Book reviewWhen Enough is Enough: A Christian Framework for Environmental SustainabilityR. J. Berry (ed.) (Hilary Marlow)October2010222Free to view
Book reviewCreation’s Diversity: Voices from Theology and ScienceWillem B. Drees Hubert Meisinger Taede A. Smedes (eds.) (Cherryl Hunt)October2010222Free to view
Book reviewPurpose in the living world? Creation and emergent evolutionJacob Klapwijk (Paul Ewart)October2010222Free to view
Book reviewThe Universe as Communion: Towards a Neo-Patristic Synthesis of Theology and ScienceAlexei V. Nesteruk (Christopher C. Knight)October2010222Free to view
Book reviewDivine Grace and Emerging Creation: Wesleyan Forays in Science and Theology of CreationThomas Jay Oord (Philip Luscombe)October2010222Free to view
Book reviewThe Two Books: Historical Notes on Some Interactions Between Natural Science and TheologyOlaf Pedersen (Stephen Walley)October2010222Free to view
Book reviewCreation and the Conflict over EvolutionTatha Wiley (Michael Poole)October2010222Free to view
Book reviewMind, Brain and the Elusive Soul: Human Systems of Cognitive Science and ReligionMark Graves (Ross McKenzie)October2010222Free to view
Book reviewA Meaningful World: How the Arts and Sciences Reveal the Genius of NatureBenjamin Wiker Jonathan Witt (Paul Wraight)October2010222Free to view
Book reviewMy Brain Made Me Do It: The Rise of Neuroscience and the Threat to Moral ResponsibilityEliezer Sternberg (Kile Jones)October2010222Free to view
Book reviewWhy the Science and Religion Dialogue Matters: Voices from the International Society for Science and ReligionFraser Watts Kevin Dutton (eds.) (Jeremy Law)October2010222Free to view
Book reviewEco-TheologyCelia Deane-Drummond (Margot Hodson)October2010222Free to view
Book reviewGod, the big bang and Bunsen-burning issuesNigel Bovey (Meric Srokosz)October2010222Free to view
Book reviewBack to Darwin: a richer account of evolutionJohn B. Cobb (ed.) (Tom Hartman)October2010222Free to view
Book reviewCosmology: From Alpha to OmegaRobert John Russell (Daniel Saudek)October2010222Free to view
Book reviewShould Christians Embrace Evolution? Biblical and scientific responsesNorman C. Nevin (ed.) (R.J. Berry)October2010222Free to view
ArticleEditorial: Science and Christian Belief – Recent DevelopmentsDenis AlexanderApril2010221Free to view
ArticleReligion and the Early Royal Society

Abstract

The 1663 charter of the Royal Society declares that its activities shall be devoted ‘to the glory of God the Creator, and the advantage of the human race’. Yet other documents associated with the early Royal Society note that its fellows scrupulously avoided ‘meddling with Divinity, Metaphysics, Moralls’. This paper considers these apparently contradictory statements and seeks to offer an account of the roles which religion did, and did not, play in the pursuits and aspirations of the early Royal Society. In doing so, it gives consideration to a range of theories about the influence of religion on seventeenth century English science, including those of R.K. Merton, Charles Webster and Stephen Gaukroger.

Keywords

Royal Society, Merton Thesis, Puritanism, Scientific Revolution, Robert Boyle, John Ray, Thomas Sprat
Peter HarrisonApril2010221Free to view
ArticleScientific Explanations of Religious Experience and Their Implications for Belief

Abstract

Leading contemporary philosophers of religion such as Richard Swinburne and Alvin Plantinga have appealed to some sort of religious experience in defending the propriety of religious belief. Recently, best-selling atheistic books such as Richard Dawkins’ The God Delusion and Daniel Dennett’s Breaking the Spell have popularised new scientific explanations that suggest that religious belief is a natural product of evolution. In this paper, I sketch the views of Plantinga and Swinburne, outline some of the recent scientific explanations of religious experience and belief and discuss their possible implications for the propriety of religious belief.

Keywords

Richard Swinburne; Alvin Plantinga; Cognitive Science of Religion; Justin Barrett, Scott Atran, Pascal Boyer, Naturalistic explanations of Religion; Reformed Epistemology; Warrant
Patrick RichmondApril2010221Free to view
ArticleIs Science Very Different from Religion? A Polanyian Perspective

Abstract

Polanyi argued that science had to be pursued as a personal passion within a fiduciary framework. His writings are used to demonstrate that science is not completely different from religion, although it is made out to be. Science and religion both use faith in order to act. Science, like religion, has indispensable subjective elements too, but that need not and does not preclude objectivity. In addition, science itself is often dogmatic and has a set of core commitments that do not change, similar to the core beliefs in religions. Finally, although science seeks the assent of all its practitioners while people are divided into many religions, there are times when science is and perhaps should be pursued within differing and even competing schools of thought.

Keywords

alternatives, detachment, dogmatism, doubt, faith, paradigm, Polanyi, religion, science, subjectivity
Priyan DiasApril2010221Free to view
ArticleOBITUARY: Vladimir BetinaJosef PotocekApril2010221Free to view
ArticleSubstance Dualism or Body-Soul Duality?

Abstract

The natures of mind and soul have been frequently discussed over the last decade in this journal. The trend has been to move from a dualistic account towards some form of monism, while attempting to avoid the extreme of materialism with its perceived threat to rational and moral freedom. This article queries whether dualism really is dead and whether the new soul to which we are asked to subscribe is the soul of biblical teaching. Philosophical and metaphysical arguments are used to support the thesis that some form of dualism is still scientifically respectable, but the distinction of substance may be based in our ignorance of the nature of both matter and spirit.

Keywords

dualism, emergence, materialism, mind, monism, physicalism, soul
John TurlApril2010221Free to view
ArticleNancy Cartwright’s Rejection of the Laws of Nature and the Divine Lawgiver

Abstract

Well-known for her thesis that the laws of nature ‘lie’, Cartwright argues for a return to the capacities, conceptually close to Aristotelian natures. The religious references so dispersed in Cartwright’s writings could, at first, lead one to think that her religious influences played a negligible role in the elaboration of her conception of natural order. However, when these few indications are considered alongside biographical information, it becomes clear that the absence of faith in God is of crucial importance, not only to her rejection of laws, but even more so to her adoption of the capacities, and to her preference for the ‘dappled’ world, that is, a world-view that sees unified scientific description as impossible. Thus, Cartwright gives us a significant example of what might well be the paradoxical situation of a certain number of philosophers of science writing in the analytic tradition: the (relative) rareness of references to their religious convictions hides their truly fundamental influence.

Keywords

laws of nature, matter, Aristotelian natures, hylomorphism, exact science, idealisation, atheism, empiricism, Nancy Cartwright
Lydia JaegerApril2010221Free to view
Book reviewChrist and Evolution: Wonder and WisdomCelia Deane-Drummond (John Habgood)April2010221Free to view
Book reviewBehind the Scenes at Galileo’s TrialRichard J. Blackwell (Ernan McMullin)April2010221Free to view
Book reviewThe Re-Emergence of Emergence: The Emergentist Hypothesis from Science to ReligionPhilip Clayton & Paul Davies (eds.) (Russell Re Manning)April2010221Free to view
Book reviewResponsible Dominion: A Christian Approach to Sustainable DevelopmentIan Hore-Lacy (Brian Heap)April2010221Free to view
Book reviewGalileo Goes to Jail and Other Myths about Science and ReligionRonald L. Numbers (ed.) (Geoffrey Cantor)April2010221Free to view
Book reviewA Fine-Tuned Universe: The Quest for God in Science and TheologyAlister E. McGrath (Rodney Holder)April2010221Free to view
Book reviewChristology and ScienceF. LeRon Shults (Philip Luscombe)April2007221Free to view
Book reviewGod and the New Atheism: A Critical Response to Dawkins, Harris and HitchensJohn F. Haught (Louise Hickman)April2010221Free to view
Book reviewEvolutionary Creation: A Christian Approach to EvolutionDenis O. Lamoureux (Simon Kolstoe)April2010221Free to view
Book reviewA Friendly Letter to Sceptics and Atheists – Musings on Why God is Good and Faith isn’t EvilDavid G. Myers (Meric Srokosz)April2010221Free to view
Book reviewAdam’s Ancestors: Race, Religion and the Politics of Human OriginsDavid N. Livingstone (Lawrence Osborn)April2010221Free to view
Book reviewWhy Us? How Science Rediscovered the Mystery of OurselvesJames Le Fanu (Denis Alexander)April2010221Free to view
Book reviewUser’s Guide to Science and BeliefMichael Poole (John Ling)April2010221Free to view
Book reviewStarlight, Time and the New PhysicsJohn Hartnett (Dr John Martin)April2010221Free to view
Book reviewCreation: Law and ProbabilityFraser Watts (editor) (Mark McCartney)April2010221Free to view
Book reviewGod’s Philosophers: How the Medieval World Laid the Foundations of Modern ScienceJames Hannam (Allan Chapman)April2010221Free to view
Book reviewHow God Changes Your Brain: Breakthrough Findings from a Leading NeuroscientistAndrew Newberg Mark Robert Waldman (Malcolm Jeeves)April2010221Free to view
Book reviewThe Believing Primate: Scientific, Philosophical, and Theological Reflections on the Origin of ReligionJeffrey Schloss Michael Murray (eds.) (Patrick Richmond)April2010221Free to view
Book reviewTheology, Psychology and the Plural SelfLéon Turner (Alun Morinan)April2010221Free to view
ArticleGuest Editorial: The myth of physicalismPeter BusseyOctober2009212Free to view
ArticleEternity and Temporality in the Theology of Karl Barth

Abstract

This study outlines Karl Barth’s doctrine of time in which he presents created time as outflowing from God’s eternity. God’s nature, seen as self-revealing, assumes the possibility of created time. Earthly temporality is understood as proceeding from the potentiality of God’s eternity. The Incarnation is seen as a breaking in of God’s eternity into humanity’s temporality, bringing about a healing and redemption of earthly time. The fusion of past, present and future into one is essentially Trinitarian, the paradox of the Triune God being reflected in Barth’s relationship of time and eternity. Barth’s doctrine of time is considered in the light of modern notions of time as revealed by science. The proposal is made that Barth’s comprehensive doctrine of time may serve to lessen some of the contradictions involved in reconciling God’s timelessness and his intimate involvement with the created order.

Keywords

eternity, temporality, Karl Barth, theology of time, incarnation
Hilary C. MartinOctober2009212Free to view
ArticleThe Necessity of Chance: Randomness, Purpose and the Sovereignty of God

Abstract

Chance in creation is discussed in the context of purpose and meaning and its implications for the sovereignty of God. Disorder and chaos arising from chance are often seen as destructive and randomness per se as evidence that there is no purpose in the universe. Using examples from physics it is argued that chaos can be constructive. Chance is also shown to be consistent with meaning and purpose. By considering chance in theodicy, the randomness in the distribution of suffering, it is argued that chance is necessary both to allow human freedom and to preserve God’s sovereignty. It is concluded that chance has an important role in creation but exists also for a theological purpose. At the creative level random events provide a robust method to explore the range of possibilities allowed by physical laws. This interaction of chance and necessity is the mechanism of evolution. On the moral level the inability to predict outcomes creates a freedom to act that establishes real moral responsibility. At the theological level the inability of humans to predict outcomes in the presence of chance prevents us from exploiting the consistency of God and preserves his sovereignty. The conclusion is that chance is a necessary part of God’s creation in which creatures are allowed free will. As a result of this conclusion a refined definition of sovereignty is offered in which God retains an adequate degree of control to effect his will whilst allowing genuine chance to operate and in which he is involved at a detailed and personal level.

Keywords

chance, randomness, purpose, theodicy, human freedom, sovereignty of God
Paul EwartOctober2009212Free to view
ArticleThe Bible, Protestantism and the Rise of Natural Science: A Response to Harrison’s Thesis

Abstract

Harrison has proposed that the rise of modern science required as its most important condition the decline of religious nature symbolism (allegory) across early modern Western culture because it diverted attention away from nature to God. He identifies the main cause of this decline as the rejection of religious nature symbolism by the Protestant reformers. They rejected symbolic interpretation of Scripture texts because it made the meaning of the text indeterminate. We offer six reasons for doubting the proposed role of the Protestant Reformation and suggest other possible causes for the rise of modern science. There is another reading of Harrison’s thesis. For Harrison the rejection of symbolism in Scripture interpretation removes a veil from nature and its particular order the exploration of which still requires other causes. According to what we call the analogy thesis the rejection of religious nature symbolism removed a source of ambiguity and led to the use of precision in the language of biblical scholarship. By analogy of the two books this actively encouraged precise unequivocal language and attention to empirical detail in the study of nature. We argue that disagreements over Scripture interpretation render this thesis implausible as well.

Keywords

nature, allegory, symbolism, Middle Ages, interpretation of Scripture, natural science, ambiguity, Protestant Reformation, natural philosophy, Jesuit science
Jitse M. van der Meer Richard Oosterhoff October2009212Free to view
ArticleThe Bible, Protestantism and the Rise of Natural Science: A RejoinderPeter HarrisonOctober2009212Free to view
ArticleScripture and an Evolving Creation

Abstract

The interpretation of Scripture in the light of modern knowledge is an important dimension of the interaction between science and Christian theology. Particular attention is paid to the primeval narratives of Genesis 1-3, the wisdom literature and the prophets of the Exile. The Fall is reconsidered and associated, not with the origin of biological death, but with mortality, human anxiety at the transience of life consequent upon a chosen curvature into the self which alienated humans from the God who is the only true ground of hope. Evolutionary understanding encourages the concept of divine purposes being fulfilled through an unfolding process of continuous creation. A world in which creatures ‘make themselves’ is a great good but it has an inescapable shadow side. This insight offers some help with the problems of theodicy.

Keywords

continuous creation, creation narratives, evolution, the Fall, mortality, natural theology, Scripture, theodicy, wisdom literature
John PolkinghorneOctober2009212Free to view
Book reviewReconstructing a Christian Theology of Nature: Down to EarthAnna Case-Winters, (Cherryl Hunt)October2009212Free to view
Book reviewExplorations in Neuroscience, Psychology and ReligionKevin S. Seybold, (Peter G.H. Clarke)October2009212Free to view
Book reviewCosmic Impressions: Traces of God in the Laws of NatureWalther Thirring, (Peter Bussey)October2009212Free to view
Book reviewChristian Bioethics: A Guide for the PerplexedAgneta Sutton, (Philippa Taylor)October2009212Free to view
Book reviewDoes It Matter: The Unsustainable World of the MaterialistsGraham Dunstan Martin, (Arthur Jones)October2009212Free to view
Book reviewThe Many Faces of God: Science’s 400-Year Quest for Images of the DivineJeremy Campbell, (James Hannam)October2009212Free to view
Book reviewScience and the Bible: Evidence-Based Christian BeliefTed Burge, (John J. Bimson)October2009212Free to view
Book reviewErnan McMullin and Critical Realism in the Science-Theology DialoguePaul L. Allen, (David Watts)October2009212Free to view
Book reviewThe Cultures of CreationSimon Coleman Leslie Carlin (eds.), (Paul Marston)October2009212Free to view
Book reviewOracles of Science: Celebrity Scientists versus God and ReligionKarl Giberson Mariano Artigas, (Lawrence Osborn)October2009212Free to view
Book reviewOrigins: A Reformed Look at Creation, Design and EvolutionD.B. & L.D. Haarsma, (Stephen Walley)October2009212Free to view
Book reviewSaving Darwin: How to be a Christian and Believe in EvolutionK.W. Giberson, (Stephen Walley)October2009212Free to view
Book reviewCreation or Evolution: Do We Have to Choose?Denis Alexander, (Andrew Bowie)October2009212Free to view
Book reviewQuestions of Truth: Fifty-one Responses to Questions about God, Science, and BeliefJohn Polkinghorne Nicholas Beale, (Paul Wraight)October2009212Free to view
Book reviewPeril in Paradise: Theology, Science, and the Age of the EarthMark S. Whorton, (Stephen Walley)October2009212Free to view
ArticleEditorial: Rescuing DarwinDenis AlexanderApril2009211Free to view
ArticleThe Reception of Darwinism in the Nineteenth Century: A Three Part Story

Abstract

For over a century, historians and other scholars have debated the impact of ‘Darwinism’ on late nineteenth century biological and social thought. The general view holds that Darwinism quickly became ascendant in science and has remained so ever since. Recent scholarship points toward a more nuanced view in large part because of a growing appreciation of how the term was then understood. To the extent that Darwinism simply meant evolutionary descent with modification, then the general view remains widely accepted by historians. Virtually every laboratory biologist and field naturalist accepted the concept by 1880 and continues to do so. During the late nineteenth century, however, Darwin’s particular theory of evolution by natural selection, which was also commonly referred to as ‘Darwinism’, gradually lost ground to other scientific explanations for organic evolution. Further, despite Darwin’s passionate defence of it, any direct evolutionary link between human and animal nature remained highly controversial throughout the nineteenth century

Keywords

Darwinism, Neo-Lamarckism, orthogenesis, natural selection, evolution, biogeography, mutation theory, T. H. Huxley, Ernst Haeckel, Alfred Russel Wallace
Edward J. LarsonApril2009211Free to view
ArticleThe Boyle Lecture 2008: Psychologising and Neurologising about Religion: Facts, Fallacies and the FutureMalcolm JeevesApril2009211Free to view
ArticlePsychology, Religion and Theology – A Response to Malcolm JeevesFraser WattsApril2009211Free to view
ArticleNeuroscience and the Soul – A Response to Malcolm JeevesPeter ClarkeApril2009211Free to view
ArticleResonance and Dissonance – A Response to Malcolm JeevesWarren S. BrownApril2009211Free to view
Book reviewThe Oxford Handbook of Religion and SciencePhilip Clayton (ed.) Zachary Simpson (ass. ed.) (Christopher Southgate)April2009211Free to view
Book reviewThe Deep Structure of BiologySimon Conway Morris (ed.) (Graeme Finlay)April2009211Free to view
Book reviewThe Fall of Man and the Foundations of SciencePeter Harrison (Lydia Jaeger)April2009211Free to view
Book reviewThe Open Secret: A New Vision for Natural TheologyAlister E. McGrath (Philip Bligh)April2009211Free to view
Book reviewWhy There Almost Certainly Is a God: Doubting DawkinsKeith Ward (Rodney Holder)April2009211Free to view
Book reviewAlone in the World? Human Uniqueness in Science and Theology (The Gifford Lectures)J. Wentzel van Huyssteen (Justin L. Barrett)April2009211Free to view
Book reviewEminent Lives in Twentieth-Century Science & ReligionNicolaas A. Rupke (ed.) (Geoffrey Cantor)April2009211Free to view
Book reviewDid My Neurons Make Me Do It?: Philosophical and Neurobiological Perspectives on Moral Responsibility and Free WillNancey Murphy & Warren S. Brown (Paul N. Markham)April2009211Free to view
Book reviewEvolution and Emergence: Systems, Organisms, PersonsNancey Murphy and William R. Stoeger (eds.) (Celia Deane-Drummond)April2009211Free to view
Book reviewRoman Catholicism and Modern Science: A HistoryDon O’Leary (Cyprian Love)April2009211Free to view
Book reviewI Wish I Could Believe in Meaning and Purpose: A Response to NihilismPeter S. Williams (Peter Hampson)April2009211Free to view
Book reviewProblems in theology 4: science and religionJeff Astley, David Brown, Ann Loades (eds.) (Andrew Fox)April2009211Free to view
Book reviewThe Day Without Yesterday: Lemaître, Einstein, and the Birth of Modern CosmologyJohn Farrell (Simon Mitton)April2009211Free to view
Book reviewGod, Chance and PurposeDavid J. Bartholomew (Mark McCartney)April2009211Free to view
ArticlePsychology, Neuroscience, Religion and Theology – Pruning the ‘isms’ and Defining the Conceptual FrameworkMalcolm JeevesApril2009211Free to view
ArticleThe Idea of Law in Science and Religion

Abstract

For many, a central task of science is the discovery and formulation of the laws of nature. This characterisation of the scientific enterprise, although almost a commonplace today, is nevertheless of recent origin, more or less contemporary with the birth of modern science. It originated in the seventeenth century, when the leaders of the scientific revolution liked to describe their procedures as a break away from Greek science, as transmitted by the medieval scholastics. Laws of nature were introduced as a rival explanation of natural phenomena, which was meant to replace the Aristotelian categories. This article explores the characteristics of the modern concept of natural law, explains its possible biblical and theological roots and asks the extent to which this background can help us gain a renewed understanding of the scientific concept.

Keywords

law, science, religion, Newton, Boyle, occasionalism
Lydia JaegerOctober2008202Free to view
ArticleGuest EditorialJohn PolkinghorneOctober2008202Free to view
ArticleThe Research Scientist’s Psalm

Abstract

Psalm 111 links the works of God in creation with his works in history and salvation. Verse 2 (‘Great are the works of the Lord, studied by all those who delight in them’) is often taken as a mandate and challenge for scientific research. This is legitimate, but it should not be divorced from other emphases in the psalm, particularly God’s providential upholding throughout time. The psalmist also reminds us that ‘the fear of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom’. A research scientist is one who should properly humble him or herself before their data.

Keywords

creation, psalms, Cavendish Laboratory, God’s works, naturalism, awe
R.J. BerryOctober2008202Free to view
ArticleGod’s story and the Earth’s story: grounding our concern for the environment in the biblical metanarrative

Abstract

Christian concern for the environment and the Earth is often grounded in the notion of stewardship of God’s creation and so based primarily on the opening chapters of the Bible. Here the aim is to broaden the basis of Christian environmental ethics by considering the full sweep of the biblical metanarrative, and to develop a Christocentric approach that takes account of the whole Bible – both Old and New Testaments. By doing this we situate the Earth’s story within the context of God’s story and thereby provide motivation for our participation in God’s mission to redeem his creation.

Keywords

creation, Earth, environment, ethics, eschatology, metanarrative, story
M.A. SrokoszOctober2008202Free to view
ArticleExplanations in Science and Beyond

Abstract

The nature and scope of explanation are central to our understanding of the significance of science, and are also important in providing intellectual reasons for belief in God. However issues of complexity versus simplicity in explanations have been raised in this connection – in particular by Richard Dawkins and others when considering the organised complexity of biological systems. To clarify these matters, we examine the ways in which explanations and proofs operate in mathematics and in science. In particular, distinctions are explored between proximate and ultimate explanations, and between formal and factual aspects of explanations. Simplicity is in fact not of primary importance, because what is actually sought is the correct explanation. It is argued that science cannot provide a truly ultimate explanation for the universe but that God is the appropriate recourse here. God’s complexity need not be greater than that of the universe, but is hard to assess and not very relevant because God is not a scientific explanation.

Keywords

explanation, science, physics, mathematics, God, complexity, simplicity, proof, paradigm
Peter BusseyOctober2008202Free to view
ArticleResponse to BusseyPatrick RichmondOctober2008202Free to view
ArticleResponse to RichmondPeter BusseyOctober2008202Free to view
Book reviewThe Dawkins Delusion: Atheist fundamentalism and the denial of the divineAlister and Joanna McGrath (Michael Poole)October2008202Free to view
Book reviewDarwin’s Angel – An Angelic Riposte to The God DelusionJohn Cornwell (Patrick Richmond)October2008202Free to view
Book reviewDarwin and Intelligent DesignFrancisco J. Ayala (Denis Alexander)October2008202Free to view
Book reviewDarwin’s Gift to Science and ReligionFrancisco J. Ayala (Denis Alexander)October2008202Free to view
Book reviewGod’s Undertaker – Has Science Buried God?John C. Lennox (Denis Alexander)October2008202Free to view
Book reviewCreation and Double Chaos: Science and Theology in DiscussionSjoerd L. Bonting (Philip Luscombe)October2008202Free to view
Book reviewUniverse or Multiverse?Bernard Carr (ed.) (Rodney Holder)October2008202Free to view
Book reviewGod’s Action in Nature’s World: Essays in Honour of Robert John RussellTed Peters and Nathan Hallanger (eds.) (Christopher C. Knight)October2008202Free to view
Book reviewScience and Religion in Schools Project(John Ling)October2008202Free to view
Book reviewEnvironmental Stewardship: Critical Perspectives – Past and PresentR. J. Berry (ed.) (Jonathan Moo)October2008202Free to view
Book reviewChristianity, Climate Change and Sustainable LivingNick Spencer and Robert White (Colin A. Russell)October2008202Free to view
Book reviewBeauty and ScienceEnzo Tiezzi (Colin Reeves)October2008202Free to view
Book reviewWhose View of Life? Embryos, Cloning and Stem CellsJane Maienschein (Ken Mickleson)October2008202Free to view
Book reviewThe Big Questions in Science and ReligionKeith Ward (John Polkinghorne)October2008202Free to view
Book reviewOriginal Selfishness: Original Sin and Evil in the Light of EvolutionDaryl P. Domning and Monica K. Hellwig (Ernest Lucas)October2008202Free to view
ArticleEditorialDenis AlexanderApril2008201Free to view
ArticleThe Nature of Human Nature

Abstract

Our traditional understanding of humanness has been radically affected by two factors: we now see ourselves as a product of a history that stretches back millions rather than hundreds of years, thus opening the possibility of change from our original state; and over the past few decades we have learnt much about the evolutionary and genetic influences that have formed us, raising acute questions as to how we interpret biblical descriptions of our nature and how we relate to the Creator. We believe that these developments do not conflict with the biblical accounts of humankind, so long as we are open to fresh interpretations when and where new evidence justifies them.

Keywords

Evolution, determinism, relationships, death, grace, evolutionary psychology, imago Dei, naturalism, complementarity
R.J. Berry Malcolm JeevesApril2008201Free to view
ArticleDialectical Critical Realism in Science and Theology: Quantum Physics and Karl Barth

Abstract

In order to illuminate the similarities and differences between science and theology, we consider an epistemology and methodology for each that can be characterised as a dialectical critical realism. Our approach is deeply indebted to the work of the great Swiss theologian, Karl Barth. Key points are (i) that the object under study determines the method to be used, the community of investigators and the nature of the possible knowledge to be gained; (ii) the necessity of a posteriori, rather than a priori reasoning; and (iii) that the dialogue between theology and science should account for both the similarities and differences between the two disciplines. The counterintuitive nature of quantum physics is used to illustrate how in science (i) the dialectic element should lead to a critical dimension to realism, and (ii) one is forced to engage with reality on its own terms.

Keywords

Critical realism, dialectic, quantum physics, epistemology, Karl Barth
Ross H. McKenzie Benjamin MyersApril2008201Free to view
ArticleEvolution as created history

Abstract

The science of biological evolution continues to arouse debate. In this paper, I wish to show how the distribution of endogenous retroviruses and transposons in mammalian genomes demonstrates that humans have evolved from progenitors that are ancestral to all apes, primates, and mammals. New genes and gene families have risen from ongoing natural genetic processes.1 The evolutionary understanding of biological history is compatible with the historical basis of biblical faith. It is suggested that Christians should see biological evolution as Israel understood her chaotic and tumultuous story: created history.

Keywords

Evolution; genomics; creation; mammals; eschatology
Graeme FinlayApril2008201Free to view
ArticleAttitudes amongst young adults to use of embryonic stem cells in research and therapy: comparison of evangelical Christian students with non-Christian students

Abstract

The various attitudes towards the use of early embryos for the generation of embryonic stem cells are surveyed, with a focus on the positions held within different segments of the Christian community. This discussion is further informed by the results of a survey carried out in Exeter, UK, to compare the views of a group of evangelical students with those of a matched control group professing no religious faith. It is concluded that religious belief is a key element influencing the attitudes of young adults towards the use of early embryos.

Keywords

embryonic stem cell; bioethics; evangelical student; embryology; medical technology
John Bryant Mary GudginApril2008201Free to view
CorrespondenceCosmic curse?P.G. NelsonApril2008201Free to view
CorrespondenceEmergence – another categoryPeter J. BusseyApril2008201Free to view
Book reviewEvolution and Christian FaithJoan Roughgarden (Tom Hartman)April2008201Free to view
Book reviewNature and the Godly Empire: Science and Evangelical Mission in the Pacific, 1795-1850Sujit Sivasundaram (Brian Stanley)April2008201Free to view
Book reviewGod, Humanity and the Cosmos – Second Edition Revised and Expanded as a Companion to the Science-Religion DebateChristopher Southgate (ed.) (Meric Srokosz)April2008201Free to view
Book reviewExploring Reality. The Intertwining of Science and ReligionJohn Polkinghorne (Philip Bligh)April2008201Free to view
Book reviewA Greener Faith: Religious Environmentalism and Our Planet’s FutureRoger S. Gottlieb (Celia Deane-Drummond)April2008201Free to view
Book reviewCreative Creatures: Values and Ethical Issues in Theology, Science and TechnologyUlf Görman, Willem B. Drees and Hubert Meisinger (eds.)April2008201Free to view
Book reviewReligion and the New Ecology: Environmental Responsibility in a World in FluxDavid M. Lodge and Christopher Hamlin (eds.) (Hilary Marlow)April2008201Free to view
Book reviewGod’s UniverseOwen Gingerich (Ken Mickleson)April2008201Free to view
Book reviewGod the Failed Hypothesis: How Science Shows That God Does Not ExistVictor J. Stenger (Paul Wraight)April2008201Free to view
Book reviewRoots and Wings: The Human Journey from a Speck of Stardust to a Spark of GodMargaret Silf (Ron Elsdon)April2008201Free to view
Book reviewSCM Studyguide: Science and ReligionJean Dorricott (Richard Dimery)April2008201Free to view
Book reviewWhy Psychology Needs Theology: A Radical-Reformation PerspectiveAlvin Dueck and Cameron Lee (eds.) (Peter G.H. Clarke)April2008201Free to view
ArticleGuest Editorial: Theoretical and practical knowledge in science and faithKeith FoxOctober2007192Free to view
ArticleRichard Dawkins’ Darwinian Objection to Unexplained Complexity in God

Abstract

Richard Dawkins has popularised the argument that Darwinism leaves God looking unnecessary and extremely improbable. God would have to be even more complicated than his creatures and so even more in need of explanation than they are, but no explanation is appropriate. This paper attempts to clarify the argument and examine responses to it. It investigates claims that Darwinism does not explain everything, that no explanation of God’s complexity is needed, that God’s complexity is explained in terms of factual or logical necessity, and that God is simple, not complex. None of these responses seems completely convincing. Finally it argues that God’s knowledge of the actual world can be explained in terms of his irreducible ability to choose among alternatives based on their value, and his unlimited awareness of alternatives needs no complex specification and need not be organised, statistically improbable or composed of parts.

Keywords

atheism, complexity, Darwinism, Richard Dawkins, design argument, evolution, Alister McGrath, probability, simplicity, Richard Swinburne
Patrick RichmondOctober2007192Free to view
ArticleRobert Boyle’s Religious Life, Attitudes, and Vocation

Abstract

Robert Boyle is an outstanding example of a Christian scientist whose faith interacted fundamentally with his science. His remarkable piety was the driving force behind his interest in science and his Christian character shaped the ways in which he conducted his scientific life. A deep love for scripture, coupled ironically with a lifelong struggle with religious doubt, led him to write several important books relating scientific and religious knowledge. Ultimately, he was attracted to the mechanical philosophy because he thought it was theologically superior to traditional Aristotelian natural philosophy: by denying the existence of a quasi-divine ‘Nature’ that functioned as an intermediary between God and the world, it more clearly preserved God’s sovereignty and more powerfully motivated people to worship their creator.

Keywords

Boyle, mechanical philosophy, natural theology, piety
Edward B. DavisOctober2007192Free to view
ArticleAll Things New

Abstract

It is common for Christians to associate Christ’s Return with a catastrophic end of the world, the universe and/or space-time.Cosmology describes the future of the universe, and even of individual stars, in time-scales of billions1 of years. Does this mean that Christians should view cosmology as a vast ‘might-have-been’? Will the Second Coming be a cosmic guillotine? Does it matter anyway? The purpose of this study is to examine the claims of scripture and science concerning the end times and to see if either has anything to say to the other.

Keywords

apocalypse, cosmology, curse, end times, environment, eschatology, heaven, resurrection, SETI, universe
John TurlOctober2007192Free to view
ArticleHydrotheology: towards a natural theology for water

Abstract

This paper is a historical preamble to a fully developed natural theology based on a single substance, water. It origins are traced to a book, Hydrotheologie, by a Hamburg author, J.-A. Fabricius, in 1734. This turns out to be but one of a number of similar specialised works on natural theology in the early eighteenth century. The theme was developed by many others, especially by three of the authors of the Bridgewater Treatises in the next century. Following Darwin, natural theology was transformed but not annihilated. A Harvard chemist, J. P. Cooke, wrote a book Religion and Chemistry which devoted one chapter to water, and other authors dealt with fitness of the environment in general, with water as an important constituent. Its remarkable anomalies have been dealt with most recently by M. J. Denton. To conclude, hydrotheology is placed within the wider context of natural theology as a whole, and its implications for environmental concern are suggested.

Keywords

water, natural theology, hydrotheology, Fabricius, Whewell, Kidd, Prout, Denton, chemistry, hydrogen bond, environment
Colin A. RussellOctober2007192Free to view
CorrespondenceEmergence and TimePercy HammondOctober2007192Free to view
CorrespondenceA ‘Good’ CreationErnesT LucasOctober2007192Free to view
Book reviewThe God DelusionRichard Dawkins (Patrick Richmond)October2007192Free to view
Book reviewScience and the Trinity: The Christian Encounter with RealityJohn Polkinghorne (Lydia Jaeger)October2007192Free to view
Book reviewThe Evolution-Creation StruggleMichael Ruse (R. J. (Sam) Berry)October2007192Free to view
Book reviewFifty Years in Science and Religion: Ian G. Barbour and his legacyRobert John Russell (ed.) (David Watts)October2007192Free to view
Book reviewThe Language of God. A scientist presents evidence for beliefFrancis S Collins (Ken Mickleson)October2007192Free to view
Book reviewThe Order of Things: Explorations in Scientific TheologyAlister E McGrath (Philip Bligh)October2007192Free to view
Book reviewThe Ethics of NatureCelia E. Deane-Drummond (Caroline Berry)October2007192Free to view
Book reviewDARWIN discovering the tree of lifeNiles Eldredge (Owen Thurtle)October2007192Free to view
Book reviewIn Search of the Soul: Four Views of the Mind-Body ProblemJoel B. Green and Stuart L. Palmer (eds.) (Peter McCarthy)October2007192Free to view
Book reviewNatural TheologyWilliam Paley (edited by Matthew Eddy and David Knight) (Michael Roberts)October2007192Free to view
Book reviewCreation and the world of science – The reshaping of beliefArthur Peacocke (Andrew Halestrap)October2007192Free to view
Book reviewGod, Life, and the CosmosTed Peters, Muzaffar Iqbal and Syed Nomanul Haq (eds.) (Denis Alexander)October2007192Free to view
Book reviewThe Music of Life – Biology Beyond the GenomeDenis Noble (John Bryant)October2007192Free to view
Book reviewCan you believe in God and evolution?: a guide for the perplexedTed Peters and Martinez Hewlett (John Bausor)October2007192Free to view
Book reviewFrom Human to Posthuman: Christian Theology and Technology in a Postmodern WorldBrent Waters (Alan Jiggins)October2007192Free to view
ArticleEditorial: Astronomy and Christianity in ChinaRodney HolderApril2007191Free to view
ArticleDoes the Advance of Science Mean Secularisation?David MartinApril2007191Free to view
ArticleEden & Ecology: Evolution & Eschatology

Abstract

If God is both Creator and one who reveals himself, there can be no inevitable conflict between our knowledge of him as derived from his written and living Words and that obtained from the study of his creation, which is mainly through science. How does the Garden of Eden fit with our knowledge of ecology; does evolution deny the possibility of a historical Adam; and where is creation headed? This paper examines how we can reconcile a creation which God declared to be ‘very good’ with our present imperfect world and how we may perceive its final fate.

Keywords

ecology, creation, fall, atonement, apocalypse
R. J. BerryApril2007191Free to view
ArticleMere Summing Up? Some Considerations on the History of the Concept of Emergence and its Significance for Science and Religion

Abstract

The concept of ‘emergence’ is of increasing interest to Christian theologians working in the science and religion field. This paper offers a long view of the concept of emergence and its significance for religion and theology. To do so, it reconstructs the accounts of three pioneers of the philosophy of emergence – John Stuart Mill, Samuel Alexander and C. D. Broad. It further relates their positions to contemporary debates concerning the theological appropriation of emergence, in particular in the writings of Nancey Murphy and Philip Clayton.

Keywords

Emergence; nonreductive physicalism; John Stuart Mill; Samuel Alexander; C. D. Broad; Nancey Murphy; Philip Clayton
Russell ManningApril2007191Free to view
ArticleOBITUARY Arthur Peacocke [1924-2006]Dr Denis AlexanderApril2007191Free to view
CorrespondenceThe Curse: Relational or Cosmic?P. G. NelsonApril2007191Free to view
CorrespondenceA Cosmic Fall?R. J. BerryApril2007191Free to view
CorrespondenceComment on Roger Paul, ‘Relative State or It-from-Bit…’, Science and Christian Belief (2005) 17, 155-175Lydia JaegerApril2007191Free to view
CorrespondenceEvolution and intelligenceRichard SturchApril2007191Free to view
CorrespondenceA response to Richard SturchSimon Conway MorrisApril2007191Free to view
Book reviewLiberal Eugenics: In Defence of Human EnhancementNicholas Agar (Alun Morinan)April2007191Free to view
Book reviewMountains on the MoonMichael Arthern (Jason Rampelt)April2007191Free to view
Book review10 Good Questions About Life and DeathChristopher Belshaw (Peter Lynch)April2007191Free to view
Book reviewGalileo’s Instruments of Credit: Telescopes, Images, SecrecyMario Biagioli (Ernan McMullin)April2007191Free to view
Book reviewDenying and Disclosing God: The Ambiguous Progress of Modern AtheismMichael J. Buckley, SJ (Lawrence Osborn)April2007191Free to view
Book reviewThe Myth of Religious Neutrality: An Essay on the Hidden Role of Religious Belief in TheoriesRoy Clouser (Steve Bishop)April2007191Free to view
Book reviewThe Goldilocks Enigma: Why is the Universe Just Right for Life?Paul Davies (Rodney Holder)April2007191Free to view
ArticleA Theology of Purpose: Creation, Evolution and the Understanding of Purpose

Abstract

The notion of purpose within the universe remains one of the central areas of disagreement between theology and science today. Even within theology itself, there is the belief that purpose is a religious inference rather than a biological reality. Recently, however, Simon Conway Morris has countered common evolutionary opinion by suggesting that the biological process of evolution does appear to be purposeful, as illustrated by the fact of convergence. Although this concept is controversial, it has some theological merit, because if evolution as a process can now be considered purposeful, a theology of purpose can be developed. By using the doctrine of election as outlined by Karl Barth, I believe such a theology can be derived through which the purpose for evolution can be seen in producing the ‘inevitable humans’. In this context, a theology of purpose acts to support the dialogue between theology and science, and provides a basis for an ethic of care.

Keywords

theology, creation, evolution, purpose, Karl Barth, election, Simon Conway Morris, convergence
Graham J. O BrienApril2007191Free to view
ArticleEditorialDenis AlexanderOctober2006182Free to view
ArticleThe Bible and the Emergence of Modern Science

Abstract

The Bible played a significant role in the development of modern science. Most obviously, its contents were important because they could be read in ways that seemed either to conflict with or to confirm new scientific claims. More important, however, were changes to the way in which the Bible was interpreted during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. The move away from allegorical readings of Scripture and the new focus on the historical or literal sense – a development promoted by humanist scholars and Protestant reformers – contributed to the collapse of the symbolic world of the Middle Ages and paved the way for new mathematical and taxonomic readings of nature. Biblical hermeneutics was thus of profound importance for those new ways of interpreting nature that we associate with the emergence of modern science.

Keywords

allegory, ‘book of nature’, hermeneutics, literal sense, Reformation, scientific revolution
Peter HarrisonOctober2006182Free to view
ArticlePhysical Infinities: a Substitute for God?

Abstract

It has been argued at various times that our universe may be infinitely old, infinitely large, or one of an infinite set of universes. In such ways the physically infinite has sometimes been seen as a substitute for God or a means to avoid thinking about God. In particular, this may refer to the causational aspects of the universe, the presence of laws of nature, and to intelligent design arguments. This article presents a survey and a critique of these ideas. That they do provide a plausible replacement for God is highly questionable: either the ideas themselves lack a firm basis, or else faith is able to accommodate them.

Keywords

infinite, infinity, universe, God, design
Peter J BusseyOctober2006182Free to view
ArticleThe BBC, the Victoria Institute, and the Theological Context for the Big Bang – Steady State Debate

Abstract

In the late 1940s, Fred Hoyle, Hermann Bondi and Tom Gold introduced a steady state model for the universe. Theirs was a universe without beginning or end, a model that neatly avoided the ex nihilo problem and bore little resemblance to Christian origin stories. Despite Hoyle’s early efforts to cast the big bang – steady state debate as a debate between a Christian cosmology and a more sober and scientific cosmology, the discussion of these models in many quarters quickly embraced both as potentially deistic visions of the universe.

Keywords

Cosmology, big bang, steady state, Victoria Institute, BBC, American Scientific Affiliation, Fred Hoyle, George Gamow
Craig Sean McConnellOctober2006182Free to view
ArticleWhere is Natural Theology Today?John PolkinghorneOctober2006182Free to view
ArticlePaley Memorial Sermon

Abstract

A sermon preached at a service of Holy Communion at Carlisle Cathedral on Sunday, 23 May 2005, by Revd Professor Alister E. McGrath, DD, FRSA
Alister McGrathOctober2006182Free to view
ArticleOBITUARY - David Given (1943-2005) – Science & Christian Belief Editorial Board MemberDr Richard StoreyOctober2006182Free to view
Book reviewScience and SalvationAileen Fyfe, (Michael Roberts)October2006182Free to view
Book reviewHow to relate science and religion: a multidimensional modeMikael Stenmark, (Meric Srokosz)October2006182Free to view
Book reviewFrom Cells to Souls – and Beyond: Changing portraits of human natureMalcolm Jeeves, (ed.), (Ken Mickleson)October2006182Free to view
Book reviewDeep Down Things: the breathtaking beauty of particle physicsBruce A. Schumm, (David Watts)October2006182Free to view
Book reviewDawkins’ God: Genes, Memes, and the Meaning of LifeAlister McGrath, (Ernest Lucas)October2006182Free to view
Book reviewTheology and Modern PhysicsPeter E. Hodgson, (John Polkinghorne)October2006182Free to view
Book reviewResponsible dominion – A Christian approach to sustainable developmentIan Hore-Lacy, (Sir Brian Heap)October2006182Free to view
Book reviewBodies and Souls, or Spirited Bodies?Nancey Murphy, (Patrick Richmond)October2006182Free to view
Book reviewThe Palace of Glory: God’s World and ScienceArthur Peacocke, (Derek Burke)October2006182Free to view
Book reviewFaith and Hope in TechnologyEgbert Schuurman, (Alan Jiggins)October2006182Free to view
Book reviewDesigners of the Future – Who Should Make the Decisions?Gareth Jones, (John Bryant)October2006182Free to view
Book reviewCaring for Creation: Biblical and Theological PerspectivesSarah Tillett, (ed.), (Dr John Drake)October2006182Free to view
Book reviewBreaking the Spell – Religion as a Natural PhenomenonDaniel C. Dennett, (Denis Alexander)October2006182Free to view
Book reviewEvolution and Ethics. Human Morality in Biological & Religious PerspectivePhilip Clayton and Jeffrey Schloss, (eds.), (Ken Mickleson)October2006182Free to view
ArticleGuest EditorialBrian HeapApril2006181Free to view
ArticleThe Boyle Lecture 2005: Darwin’s Compass: How Evolution Discovers the Song of Creation

Keywords

creation, evolution, Intelligent Design, evolutionary convergence
Simon Conway MorrisApril2006181Free to view
ArticleNothing in Biology makes Sense Except in the Light of Evolution

Abstract

In his Boyle Lecture, Conway Morris provides an important counter to those who condemn Darwinian evolution as meaningless in direction and driven by random processes. In doing so, he answers the indictments of critics such as Jacques Monod and Stephen Jay Gould, and suggests an important bridge towards understanding evolution as the mechanism used by God in creation.
R J BerryApril2006181Free to view
ArticleRich Reality: a response to the Boyle Lecture by Simon Conway MorrisJohn PolkinghorneApril2006181Free to view
ArticleNavigating the Deep Structure of Biological Hyperspace: Divine Providence in an Otherwise Lonely UniverseMichael S. NorthcottApril2006181Free to view
ArticleA response to the commentaries of R.J. (Sam) Berry, John Polkinghorne and Michael NorthcottSimon Conway MorrisApril2006181Free to view
ArticleDesign in Nature

Abstract

An explicitly biblical view of design in nature is discussed according to the themes of creation and providence, divine wisdom, awe, and the role of creation in declaring the glory of God. These biblical themes are contrasted with modern design arguments that draw on contemporary science, with particular reference to ‘intelligent design’.

Keywords

Design, Creation, Providence, wisdom, ingenuity, awe, beauty, evidences, glory of God, humility
Oliver R. BarclayApril2006181Free to view
ArticleReconsidering a ‘Cosmic Fall’

Abstract

The doctrine of the cosmic fall teaches that all or part of creation was directly affected by the disobedience of Adam and Eve. The idea has been part of Christian thought since the second century, and has been used to explain a whole range of things that seem difficult to reconcile with the purposes of a loving God (popularly summed up as ‘natural evil’). The doctrine is in conflict with a world-view informed by modern science, yet it remains deeply embedded in much evangelical thinking and is widely assumed to have a strong biblical basis. This paper questions the usual interpretation of relevant biblical texts, and suggests that the nature poetry of the Old Testament points in a different direction. Finally the paper looks at recent alternative responses to natural evil.

Keywords

Cosmic fall, creation, death, predation, nature, natural evil, curse, decay, kenotic theology
John J. BimsonApril2006181Free to view
Book reviewDarwin’s Religious OdysseyWilliam E. Phipps, (D. Burbridge)April2006181Free to view
Book reviewIslam and Ecology: A Bestowed TrustRichard C. Foltz, Frederick M. Denny, Azizan Baharuddin (eds.), (S. Lucas)April2006181Free to view
Book reviewA Christian Response to the New Genetics: Religious, Ethical and Social IssuesD. H. Smith & C. B. Cohen (eds.), (C. Berry)April2006181Free to view
Book reviewAdam, Eve and the GenomeSusan Brooks Thistlethwaite (ed.), (J. Bryant)April2006181Free to view
Book reviewThe Design Revolution: answering the toughest questions about Intelligent DesignWilliam A. Dembski, (P. Wraight)April2006181Free to view
Book reviewLife in Our Hands: A Christian Perspective on Genetics and CloningJohn Bryant and John Searle, (G. Jones)April2006181Free to view
Book reviewIn Whom We Live and Move and Have Our Being: Panentheistic Reflections on God’s Presence in a Scientific WorldP. Clayton & A. Peacocke (eds.), (S. Bishop)April2006181Free to view
Book reviewGod and the Nature of TimeGarrett J. DeWeese, (L. Osborn)April2006181Free to view
Book reviewThe Divine Lawmaker : Lectures on Induction, Laws of Nature, and the Existence of GodJohn Foster, (L. Jaeger)April2006181Free to view
Book reviewEvolving Creation: God’s Books: Genetics & GenesisGraeme Finlay, (E. Lucas)April2006181Free to view
Book reviewScience and Christianity: Conflict or Coherence?Henry F. Schaefer III, (J. Bausor)April2006181Free to view
Book reviewDebating Design: From Darwin to DNAW. A. Dembski and M. Ruse (eds.), (S. Bishop)April2006181Free to view
Book reviewScience and Theology since Copernicus: the search for understandingPeter Barrett, (A. Halestrap)April2006181Free to view
Book reviewBeyond Belief: Science, faith and ethical challengesD. Alexander and R. S. White, (A. Halestrap)April2006181Free to view
Book reviewPsychology Through the Eyes of FaithDavid G. Myers and Malcolm A. Jeeves, (A. Morinan) April2006181Free to view
Book reviewScience and the Study of God: A Mutuality Model for Theology and ScienceAlan G. Padgett, (L. OsbornApril2006181Free to view
Book reviewTheology of PhysicsGeorge Richter, (P. Wraight)April2006181Free to view
Book reviewCreation out of Nothing: a Biblical, Philosophical and Scientific ExplorationPaul Copan and William Lane Craig, (S. Bishop)April2006181Free to view
Book reviewThe Earth Story in the New TestamentN. C. Habel and V. Balabanski (eds.), (R. Elsdon)April2006181Free to view
Book reviewSketches towards a theology of ScienceW. Poon (ed), (B. McInnes)April2006181Free to view
Book reviewThe Science of GodAlister E. McGrath, (A. Ison)April2006181Free to view
Book reviewAgents under Fire: materialism and the rationality of scienceAngus Menuge, (D. Watts)April2006181Free to view
Book reviewGod, the Multiverse, and EverythingRodney D. Holder, (M. McCartney)April2006181Free to view
ArticleEditorialDenis AlexanderOctober2005172Free to view
ArticleHas Science eliminated God? – Richard Dawkins and the Meaning of Life

Abstract

Science has swept God from the public arena, and relegated him to the margins of our culture. He hangs on in its backwaters – but only temporarily. It is only a matter of time before the relentless advance of science finally drives God from the human mind, and the world will be a better place. That, in a nutshell, is the popular perception of the take-home message of the writings of the Oxford scientific populariser and atheist apologist Richard Dawkins. In this article, I want to raise some fundamental concerns about this popular perception, and propose to do so by engaging directly with the writings of Dawkins himself.
Alister McGrathOctober2005172Free to view
ArticleScience and the Bible: Are They Incompatible?Ernest LucasOctober2005172Free to view
ArticleRelative State or It-from-Bit: God and Contrasting Interpretations of Quantum Theory

Abstract

In this article I explore theological implications of two contrasting interpretations of quantum theory: the Relative State interpretation of Hugh Everett III, and the It-from-Bit proposal of John A. Wheeler. The Relative State interpretation considers the Universal Wave Function to be a complete description of reality. Measurement results in a branching process that can be interpreted in terms of many worlds or many minds. I discuss issues of the identity of observers in a branching universe, the ways God may interact with the deterministic, isolated quantum universe and the relative nature of salvation history from a perspective within a branch. In contrast, irreversible, elementary acts of observation are considered to be the foundation of reality in the It-from-Bit proposal. Information gained through observer-participancy (the ‘bits’) constructs the fabric of the physical universe (‘it’), in a self-excited circuit. I discuss whether meaning, including religious faith, is a human construct, and whether creation is cocreation, in which divine power and supremacy are limited by the emergence of a participatory universe. By taking these two contrasting interpretations of quantum theory seriously, I hope to show that the interpretation of quantum mechanics we start from matters theologically.

Keywords

Quantum theory, theology, relative state, many worlds, it-frombit, observer-participancy, human identity, divine simplicity, co-creation, salvation history
Roger PaulOctober2005172Free to view
Book reviewWhen Science and Christianity MeetD. Lindberg & R. Numbers (eds.), (J. Hannam)October2005172Free to view
Book reviewThe Ethics of NatureC. Deane-Drummond (S. Holm)October2005172Free to view
Book reviewModern Physics and Ancient FaithS. Barr (A. Garrett)October2005172Free to view
Book reviewBiology and Theology TodayC. E. Deane-Drummond (P. Moore)October2005172Free to view
Book reviewThe Age of the Earth: from 4004 BC to AD 2002C. Lewis & S. Knell (eds) (M. Roberts)October2005172Free to view
Book reviewCreation: from Nothing until NowW. B. Drees (P. Bligh)October2005172Free to view
ArticleGod and Differing Interpretations of Quantum Theory – Response to PaulRodney D. HolderOctober2005172Free to view
ArticleFitness of the Universe for a Second GenesisJulian Chela-FloresOctober2005172Free to view
ArticleResponses to the Human Embryo and Embryonic Stem Cells: Scientific and Theological Assessments

Abstract

The prospect of employing embryonic stem cells for research has reignited debate over the status of the human embryo. However, the current debate centres on the very earliest stages of embryonic development, notably on the blastocyst at around 5-7 days’ gestation. After a scientific overview of early embryonic development, three theological perspectives are considered. These provide insight into the contrasting ways in which the interrelationship between biblical material, traditional moral positions and scientific concepts on reproduction are currently being approached. In assessing the part biblical perspectives play, four categories of response are outlined and discussed. Of these, the one advocated is that the Bible is one of a number of sources that inform our decision-making, but may not be the predominant one. It is argued that the environment in which blastocysts are encountered has considerable relevance for theological debate, and consequently for acceptance or otherwise of the legitimacy of utilising embryonic stem cells. Two sets of Christian stances towards proceeding with embryonic stem cell investigations are contrasted in order to highlight their respective theological, moral and scientific emphases. It is concluded that both represent valid Christian responses, even though they envisage different roles for blastocysts within the human community.
D. Gareth JonesOctober2005172Free to view
DebateEngaging with Intelligent Design? Reflections on the Rhetoric of Howard Van Till

Abstract

Howard Van Till’s paper on Intelligent Design (ID), published in this journal, (2003) 15(2), presented readers with what purported to be a scientific demolition of William Dembski’s arguments for ID. Here we argue that Van Till’s presentation was seriously flawed, presenting a distorted picture of ID, and misrepresenting the contributions to ID of William Dembski and Michael Behe. We explore the background to Van Till’s paper and provide a more accurate account of what ID is about.

Keywords

Intelligent Design, Howard Van Till, William Dembski, Michael Behe, origins, evolution, creation, theistic evolution, God of the gaps, Darwinism.
Arthur Jones and David TylerOctober2005172Free to view
DebateApples, Oranges and Portraits of the Intelligent Design Movement

Abstract

During the past fifteen years North America has seen the rise of a movement known by the label, ‘Intelligent Design’. This ID movement is characterised by several factors: scientific claims, rhetorical strategies, political goals and religious motivations. In a recent essay (S&CB 15:2, 2003) my assessment of the ID movement focused mostly on the rhetorical strategies and scientific claims made by leading ID advocates, principally by theorist William A. Dembski. Arthur Jones and David Tyler have offered a very different portrait of ID and charge that what I presented was a highly distorted picture of ID that misrepresented its leaders. In this response I shall explore some of the reasons for the vivid contrast between our two portraits of the ID movement in North America.
Howard J. Van TillOctober2005172Free to view
CorrespondencePsychobiosocial muddle or model?David BoothOctober2005172Free to view
CorrespondenceMacKay/Jeeves and Torrance/Cartwright: Similarities and a Major DifferencePeter G.H. ClarkeOctober2005172Free to view
ArticleEditorialMichael ByrneApril2005171Free to view
ArticleThe Boyle Lecture 2003: Darwin, Design and the Promise of NatureJohn F. HaughtApril2005171Free to view
ArticleA Response to the Boyle LectureSimon Conway MorrisApril2005171Free to view
ArticleA Blast from the Past? The Boyle Lectures and Natural TheologyAlister McGrathApril2005171Free to view
ArticleReflections on the Boyle LecturePaul HelmApril2005171Free to view
ArticleThe Lions Seek Their Prey From God: a Commentary on the Boyle LectureR. J. BerryApril2005171Free to view
ArticleTrue Union Differentiates: A Response to My CriticsJohn F. HaughtApril2005171Free to view
ArticleAppropriate Technology: The Poetry of Science

Abstract

The case is made for increased use of appropriate technology to solve pressing engineering challenges from a Christian perspective. The rapid advance of technology and its impact on culture and research priorities are discussed. Appropriate technology is introduced as a practical and ethical alternative to the increasingly complex solutions favoured by many. ‘L’invention n’est-elle pas la poésie de la science?’1 E. M. Bataille ‘The world is very different now. For man holds within his mortal hands the power to destroy all forms of human poverty and the power to destroy all forms of human life.’2 John F. Kennedy

Keywords

technology, technopoly, sustainability, world poverty, appropriate technology
Michael J. CliffordApril2005171Free to view
CorrespondenceMore on MemesAlan GijsbersApril2005171Free to view
CorrespondenceVan Till and Probability TheoryColin ReevesApril2005171Free to view
CorrespondenceIntelligent Design’s Vulnerability to False Positive Indicators: A Response to ReevesHoward J. Van TillApril2005171Free to view
Book reviewGod’s StewardsD. Brandt (ed) (K. Mickleson)April2005171Free to view
Book reviewThe Miracles of the ExodusC.Humphreys (J. Bimson)April2005171Free to view
Book reviewThe Re-enchantment of NatureMcGrath (W. Kay)April2005171Free to view
Book reviewLiving with HopeJ. Polkinghorne (E. Lucas)April2005171Free to view
Book reviewThe Question of GodM. Palmer (R. Luhman)April2005171Free to view
Book reviewNature, Human Nature, and GodI. Barbour (K. Mickleson)April2005171Free to view
Book reviewGod’s Book of WorksR. Berry (C. Dow)April2005171Free to view
Book reviewThe New Genetic MedicineT. Shannon & J.Walter (G. Jones)April2005171Free to view
Book reviewThe New FlatlandersE. Middleton (J. Bausor)April2005171Free to view
Book reviewScience, Theology and EthicsT. Peters (P. Moore)April2005171Free to view
Book reviewIn Our Image: Artificial Intelligence and the Human SpiritN. Herzfeld (P. McCarthy)April2005171Free to view
Book reviewPhilosophy Matters: An Introduction to PhilosophyR. Trigg (P. Hampson)April2005171Free to view
Book reviewBridging Science and ReligionT. Peters & G. Bennett (eds) (M. Poole)April2005171Free to view
Book reviewDarwin and DesignM. Ruse (S. Lucas)April2005171Free to view
Book reviewLife’s SolutionS. Morris (R. Berry)April2005171Free to view
Book reviewJesus and the EarthJ. Jones (L. Burn)April2005171Free to view
Book reviewNew Age, Paganism and Christian MissionS. Hollinghurst (E. Lucas)April2005171Free to view
ArticleEditorial, God, Science and Freedom: Where Next?Peter ClarkeOctober2004162Free to view
ArticleHow Free is Free? Reflections on the Neuropsychology of Thought and Action

Abstract

It is widely recognised that some of the implications of rapid developments in neuroscience raise with a fresh urgency questions of human freedom and responsibility. These are issues for humanists and atheists as much as for Christians since all claim that their often deeply held beliefs were rationally considered and freely embraced. However, the evidence from bottom-up neuro-scientific research points to the ever-tightening links between brain processes and mental processes and have been interpreted by some as pointing to a reductionist view of human nature. At the same time, with the use of new brain imaging techniques the evidence for the efficacy of top-down processes also accumulates at an accelerating pace. This paper argues that there is an irreducible interdependence between cognitive and neural processes calling for a duality of description but without necessitating belief in a dualism of substances.

Keywords

dualism, determinism, neuropsychology, genetics, behaviour, cognition, mind/brain relations
Malcolm JeevesOctober2004162Free to view
ArticleDevelopments in Neuroscience and Human Freedom: Some Theological and Philosophical Questions

Abstract

Christianity suggests that human beings are free and responsible agents. Developments in neuroscience challenge this when wedded with two ‘fideisms’: ‘naturalism’ and ‘nomological monism’ (causality applies exclusively to basic particles). The wedding of Galen Strawson’s denial that anything can be a cause of itself with a physicalist account of brain states highlights the problem neuroscience poses for human freedom. If physicalism is inherently reductionistic (Kim) and dualism struggles to make sense of developments in neuroscience, Cartwright’s pluralist account of causality may offer a way forward. It integrates with thinking about the person from a Christian epistemic base and facilitates response to Strawson.

Keywords

God, person, neuroscience, freedom, naturalism, nomological monism, physicalism, dualism, causality
Alan TorranceOctober2004162Free to view
ArticleNeuroscientific Determinism and the Problem of Evil

Abstract

This article examines Christian responses to the threat of physical determinism from neuroscience. Some have argued that elements of physical indeterminism, such as quantum theory, provide a basis for libertarian freedom and responsibility and a way of exculpating God. Others have argued that such theories are problematic and at best speculative and have proposed a view of freedom compatible with determinism. However, they have offered little defence against the problems of sin and evil that arise without libertarianism. I proceed to argue that libertarianism does not enhance responsibility or distance God from sin as far as one might think. I then outline possible strategies for justifying the punishment of predetermined wrongdoing and God’s acceptance of sin that remain open to the compatibilist.

Keywords

determinism, problem of evil, providence, free will, compatibilism, libertarianism
Patrick RichmondOctober2004162Free to view
ArticleBeyond Materialism: from the Medieval Scholars to Quantum Physics

Abstract

A traditional anti-metaphysical goal has been the materialist assimilation of human mental and personal qualities into the physical nature of the brain. However, consciousness notably resists explanation in such a way. In an attempt to deal with this problem, a firmly realist view of the laws of nature is argued here. Aspects of consciousness are examined, showing that consciousness does not lie within the remit of physics. A survey of the thinking of Descartes, Aquinas and Duns Scotus is given to illustrate the nature of the mind-matter and mind-body problem, with further reference to the position of Kant. By emphasising that physical objects comprise form and matter, the medieval philosophers provide a starting-point for a perspective that can incorporate modern developments in physics. It is proposed that the concept of the ‘mental’ be broadened to encompass the laws of nature, taken as mathematical ideas which determine the behaviour and properties of physical things. The identification of what ‘matter’ is raises significant questions, but may involve quantum fields. Eddington postulated what can be called a ‘mental dimension’, and this may provide a promising framework for uniting the laws of physics and our own mental nature. The main question is no longer the relationship between ‘mind’ and ‘matter’, for this is now at the heart of physics. It is more to do with human consciousness within this broader mental dimension.

Keywords

materialism, laws of nature, realism, nominalism, consciousness, ideas, epiphenomenalism, mind, matter
Peter J BusseyOctober2004162Free to view
Book reviewGlimpses of the Wonderful – the Life of Philip Henry Gosse 1810-1888Ann Thwaite (Denis Alexander)October2004162Free to view
ArticleObituary - Sir Robert BoydOliver R Barclay and Sir John HoughtonOctober2004162Free to view
Book reviewThe History of Science & Religion in the Western Tradition: An EncyclopediaG.B. Ferngren (ed.) (Richard Dimery)October2004162Free to view
Book reviewCarl Sagan’s Cosmic Connection: an extraterrestrial perspectiveCarl Sagan and others (Bennet McInnes)October2004162Free to view
Book reviewObserving God: Thomas Dick, Evangelicalism, and Popular Science in Victorian Britain and AmericaWilliam J. Astore (Michael B. Roberts)October2004162Free to view
Book reviewOrigin of the Human SpeciesDennis Bonette (Derek Burke)October2004162Free to view
Book reviewThe Message of CreationDavid Wilkinson (Stuart Lucas)October2004162Free to view
Book reviewGod, Life, Intelligence & the UniverseT. Kelly & H. Regan (eds.) (Peter McCarthy)October2004162Free to view
Book reviewThe Great Instauration: science, medicine and reform 1626-1660Charles Webster (Colin A. Russell)October2004162Free to view
Book reviewBlood and Justice: the 17th century Parisian doctor who made blood transfusion history.Peter Moore (John Wilkinson)October2004162Free to view
ArticleEditorialDenis AlexanderApril2004161Free to view
ArticleBeyond Reductionism and Dualism:Towards a Christian Solution to the Mind Body Problem

Abstract

Professor Nancey Murphy’s paper on ‘The Problem of Mental Causation’, published in this journal (14:2 October 2002), presented readers with a set of ideas that may constitute a considerable step towards a Christian solution to the mind/body problem. In her presentation, however, she used an aspect of Donald M. MacKay’s work in a way that he had made a point of avoiding. Ironically, the Reverend Lindsay Cullen’s earlier criticism of Murphy’s work on the mind/body problem likewise suffers from a misunderstanding of one of MacKay’s most fundamental teachings (though Cullen did not cite MacKay directly). While MacKay may not have minded our updating his ideas to accommodate recent advances, it would be well worth our time to compare the reasoning of Cullen and Murphy with what MacKay had in mind. Without doing so, it is impossible to tell whether these recent contributions represent an improvement to MacKay’s system or otherwise.

Keywords

Murphy, Cullen, MacKay, mind, body, non-reductive physicalism, complementary descriptions, downward causation
David A NormanApril2004161Free to view
ArticleAssessing risk: science or art?

Abstract

Assessment of risk, which used to be seen as a purely technocratic process, has become much more complex as we have learned how hazards can be viewed so differently by scientists and members of the public. Social science research has shown how much the individual’s own values affect their relative perception of risk and this insight has now been brought into the process of risk assessment. Many of the values that affect these judgments are of central importance to Christian faith, and this article seeks to show, with use of suitable examples, how the process has developed, and its implications for Christians.

Keywords

GM foods, GM crops, risk, hazard
Derek BurkeApril2004161Free to view
ArticleTruth in Science: Proof, Persuasion, and the Galileo Affair

Abstract

In 1616 in a letter destined for Galileo, Cardinal Roberto Bellarmine (the leading Catholic theologian of his day) expressed his doubts about finding evidence for a moving earth. Would the annual stellar parallax or the Foucault pendulum have convinced him? The historical setting explored in this essay suggests that the cardinal would not have been swayed by these modern ‘proofs’ of the heliocentric cosmology, even though they are convincing to us today because we in the meantime have the advantage of a Newtonian framework. What passes today for truth in science is a comprehensive system of coherencies supported more by persuasion than ‘proofs’.

Keywords

heliocentric cosmology, Copernicus, Galileo
Owen GingrichApril2004161Free to view
Book reviewBook Review: Victorian Sensation: the Extraordinary Publication, Reception, and Secret Authorship of Vestiges of the Natural History of CreationJames A. Secord (David Burbridge)April2004161Free to view
DebateCloning, Creation and ControlNeil G MesserApril2004161Free to view
DebateCreation – a Bond of Love?Calum MacKellarApril2004161Free to view
DebateResponse by Gareth JonesDGareth JonesApril2004161Free to view
CorrespondenceThe Illusory SelfPhilip BlighApril2004161Free to view
CorrespondenceSelfhood is not an IllusionPeter G. H. ClarkeApril2004161Free to view
CorrespondenceHuman OriginsP G NelsonApril2004161Free to view
CorrespondenceHuman Origins – a ResponseGraeme FinlayApril2004161Free to view
Book reviewSigns of Intelligence: Understanding Intelligent DesignW. A. Dembski and J. M. Kushiner, (eds) (Mike Poole)April2004161Free to view
Book reviewCan a Darwinian be a Christian? The Relationship between Science and ReligionMichael Ruse (Derek Burke)April2004161Free to view
Book reviewDarwin’s Mentor: John Stevens Henslow, 1769 – 1861S. M.Walters and E. A. Stow (Owen Thurtle)April2004161Free to view
Book reviewReconciling Science and Religion: the Debate in Early-Twentieth Century BritainPeter J Bowler (Colin A Russell)April2004161Free to view
Book reviewQuantum Mechanics: Scientific Perspectives on Divine Action, Volume 5Robert John Russell, Philip Clayton, Kirk Wegter-McNelly and John Polkinghorne (eds) (Lawrence Osborn)April2004161Free to view
Book reviewThe Essence of DarwinismKirsten Birkett (Diana Briggs)April2004161Free to view
Book reviewFacing Up: Science and its Cultural AdversariesSteven Weinberg (Anthony Garrett)April2004161Free to view
Book reviewFaith in Science: Scientists Search for TruthW. Mark Richardson and Gordy Slack (eds.) (John Bausor)April2004161Free to view
Book reviewHabitat of Grace: biology, Christianity and the globalenvironmental crisisCarolyn M. King (Ray Gambell)April2004161Free to view
Book reviewScientism: Science, ethics and religionStenmark, Mikael (Mike Poole)April2004161Free to view
Book reviewGod & Reason in the Middle AgesEdward Grant (Charles Webster)April2004161Free to view
Book reviewThe Prenatal Person: Ethics from conception to birthNorman M Ford (KNP Mickleson)April2004161Free to view
Book reviewThe Bible, Protestantism, and the rise of natural science P. HarrisonErnest LucasApril2004161Free to view
Book reviewDeep Economy: Caring for Ecology, Humanity and Religion Hans Dirk van HoogstratenRay GambellApril2004161Free to view
Book reviewEvolution under the Microscope. A scientific critique of the theory of evolution. David SwiftR J BerryApril2004161Free to view
Book reviewModern Medicine and The BibleAlan W Fowler (John Wilkinson)April2004161Free to view
Book reviewThe Concept of NatureJohn Habgood (Ron Elsdon)April2004161Free to view
Book reviewThe God of Hope and the End of the WorldJohn Polkinghorne (Ernest Lucas)April2004161Free to view
Book reviewDeveloping the Horizons of the MindK. Helmut Reich (Peter G. McCarthy)April2004161Free to view
Book reviewScience and the spiritual quest: new essays byleading scientistsW. Mark Richardson, Robert John Russell, Philip Clayton & Kirk Wetger-McNelly (eds) (Meric Srokosz)April2004161Free to view
Book reviewTheological Issues in Bioethics: an Introduction with ReadingsNeil Messer (Editor) (Caroline Berry)April2004161Free to view
Book reviewThe Frontiers of Science and Faith – ExaminingQuestions from the Big Bang to the End of the UniverseJohn Jefferson Davis (Andrew Halestrap)April2004161Free to view
Book reviewHope for Your Future: Theological Voices from thePastorateWilliam H. Lazareth, (Editor) (Peter Lynch)April2004161Free to view
Book reviewHuman Genetics: Fabricating the FutureRobert Song (Søren Holm)April2004161Free to view
Book reviewCreationHans Schwarz (K.N.P. Mickleson)April2004161Free to view
ArticleIndeterminacy, Divine Action and Human Freedom

Abstract

This article examines the idea that God created the world to be inherently indeterministic. It is argued that ontological indeterminism is scientifically unwarranted, philosophically objectionable and theologically inconsistent with a strong view of divine sovereignty and providence. Quantum mechanics does not require indeterminism. Neither do human freedom or moral responsibility, both of which are more plausibly viewed in compatibilist, rather than libertarian, terms.

Keywords

indeterminacy; God; quantum mechanics; human freedom
John BylOctober2003152Free to view
ArticleEditorial, Science, Cloning and MoralityJohn WhiteOctober2003152Free to view
ArticleAre Bacterial Flagella Intelligently Designed? Reflections on the Rhetoric of the Modern ID Movement

Abstract

The modern Intelligent Design movement argues that it can point to specific biological systems that exhibit what ID’s chief theorist William A. Dembski calls ‘specified complexity’. Furthermore, Dembski claims to have demonstrated that natural causation is unable to generate this specified complexity and that the assembling of these biological systems must, therefore, have required the aid of a non-natural action called ‘intelligent design’. In his book, No Free Lunch, Dembski presents the bacterial flagellum as the premier example of a biological system that, because he judges it to be both complex and specified, must have been actualised by the form-conferring action of an unembodied intelligent agent. In this essay we shall challenge Dembski’s rhetorical strategy and argue that he has failed to demonstrate the need for non-natural action to assemble the bacterial flagellum.

Keywords

Intelligent Design; bacterial flagellum; Darwinism
Howard J Van TillOctober2003152Free to view
ArticleGenetically-Modified Crops

Abstract

The risks, benefits, theological questions and bioethical challenges posed by genetically-modified (GM) crops are reviewed. There is already much evidence that the increased intensity of UK farming since the 1960s is the most likely cause of the decline in abundance of several important farmland species of birds, butterflies and other taxa. Unless it can be shown incontrovertibly that the application of herbicide-tolerant GM crop management will lead inevitably to a reversal of this decline in biodiversity, to recommend commercialisation in an unrestricted fashion would be to relinquish the responsibility of stewardship given us in Genesis 2. To allow the current, steady decline in biodiversity to continue is no longer acceptable, theologically, bioethically or politically. Fortunately, whatever the outcome of the Farm Scale Evaluations, agro-ecologists can devise mandatory restrictions on GM crop management that ensure a positive benefit to biodiversity, for a relatively small yield penalty. Such systems might then act as paradigms for conventional agriculture, in which the farmer is the steward of the countryside. The need to increase food production in Third World countries is clear, but GM technology does not yet conform to goals of feeding the hungry, and requires changes in delivery to ensure equitability and sustainability.

Keywords

GM crops; biodiversity; biotechnology; ecology; stewardship
Joe N PerryOctober2003152Free to view
ArticleScience, Religion and the Mind-Brain Problem – The Case of Thomas Willis(1621-1675)

Abstract

Thomas Willis, the seventeenth-century physician and churchman, lived at the confluence of powerful cultural forces, especially related to tectonic shifts in science and religion. Because of his prominence as a neuroscientist, his case serves to demonstrate that, at the onset of modernity, science and faith did not meet one another as self-contained, hermetically sealed entities. Rather, science had been formed through religious assumptions, just as religion had been formed through scientific assumptions. In particular, Christian perspectives on body-soul dualism had been built up on the foundations of classical science. Consequently, the conflict alleged between science and Christian belief regarding human nature might better be cast as a clash between rival scientific accounts – the one having achieved powerful ecclesiastical sanction, the other an emerging newcomer to the ‘new science’.

Keywords

Thomas Willis, anthropology, body-soul dualism, monism, neuroscience
Joel B GreenOctober2003152Free to view
Book reviewThe Testimony of the RocksH. Miller (P Lynch)October2003152Free to view
Book reviewDisseminating DarwinismR. Numbers & J. Stenhouse (eds) (J. Drake & R. Bademan)October2003152Free to view
Book reviewGod of MiraclesC. Collins (M Poole)October2003152Free to view
Book reviewIntroduction to the Philosophy of MindK. T. Maslin (P McCarthy)October2003152Free to view
Book reviewThe Routledge Companion to the New CosmologyP. Coles (ed) (E Lucas)October2003152Free to view
Book reviewThe Map that Changed the WorldS. Winchester (M Roberts)October2003152Free to view
Book reviewIntelligent Design Creationism and its CriticsR. Pennock (S Bishop)October2003152Free to view
Book reviewGenetic Engineering, Christ & the CosmosInitiativeB. Beamond (ed.) (A Miller)October2003152Free to view
Book reviewFaith in a Living God: A DialogueJ. Polkinghorne & M.Walker (E Cockshaw)October2003152Free to view
Book reviewPaths from Science Towards GodA. Peacocke (D Alexander)October2003152Free to view
ArticleHomo Divinus: The ape that bears God's image

Abstract

Some Christians believe that to allow room for God they must disallow room for evolution. However, aspects of the evolutionary paradigm have been established conclusively, and can be adduced to demonstrate the complementarity that exists between scientific and theological views of the world. Randomly formed, unique genetic markers shared by similar species establish that these species are descendents of a common ancestor in which the unique markers arose. Three features that demonstrate the common ancestry of humans and other higher primates are discussed. The chromosome set of one species can be rearranged into those of other species by cutting and pasting chromosomes, reflecting familiar genetic processes. The presence of unique non-functional gene relics (pseudogenes), and of unique packets of genetic information known as retrotransposons (both of which we share with other primate species) represent genetic markers which can have arisen only once, in a common ancestor. This compelling genetic evidence must inform our understanding of what it means for God to create, of the place of chance in the creative work of God, and of the nature of humanity. It illustrates the way in which God works, and demonstrates his grace as seen in creation and redemption.

Keywords

Evolution,genetics,chromosomal rearrangements, pseudogenes,retrotransposons,creation,chance and design
Graeme FinlayApril2003151Free to view
ArticleBalfour v. Huxley on Evolutionary Naturalism: A 21st century Perspective

Abstract

This essay begins by setting forth the conflicting prophecies, in 1895, of Arthur James Balfour and Thomas Henry Huxley concerning the probable course of Western culture in the twentieth century if Huxley's `scientific naturalism' were to prevail over Balfour's theistic conception of the relations between science and religion. The essay then examines some leading developments in the physical, biological, and social sciences and in philosophy and theology since 1900 to determine which of these prophecies, if either, proved to be truly prophetic. The author concludes that Balfour was the better prophet.

Keywords

evolution,naturalism,positivism,emergence,metaphor, science,philosophy,theology
John GreeneApril2003151Free to view
Book reviewThe Darwin Wars: The Scientific Battle for the Soul of Man

Keywords

Darwinism
Andrew Brown (John M. Drake)April2003151Free to view
Book reviewCreation Through Wisdom: Theology and the New Biology

Keywords

theology, new biology
Celia E. Deane-Drummond (Ron Elsdon)April2003151Free to view
Book reviewTruth Decay: Defending Christianity against the Challenges of Postmodernism

Keywords

potmodernism
Douglas Groothius (John Taylor)April2003151Free to view
Book reviewThe Genetic Inferno: Inside the Seven Deadly Sins

Keywords

genetics
John Medina (John A. Bryant)April2003151Free to view
Book reviewReal Science: What it is, and what it means

Keywords

science
John Ziman (Lawrence Osborn)April2003151Free to view
Book reviewGod, Science & Humility

Keywords

humility
R.L. Hermann (ed.) (Dr K.N.P. Mickleson)April2003151Free to view
Book reviewMichael Faraday: Physics and Faith

Keywords

Faraday,physics
Prof. C.A. Russell (Michael Walker)April2003151Free to view
Book reviewEngineering the Human Germline

Keywords

genetics
Gregory Stock and John Campbell (eds) (Dr Gareth Jones) April2003151Free to view
Book reviewFaith, Science and Understanding

Keywords

debate
John Polkinghorne (Revd. Evan Cockshaw)April2003151Free to view
Book reviewSparks of Life: Darwinism and the Victorian Debate over Spontaneous Generation

Keywords

Darwinism, spontaneous generation, Victorian
James E. Strick (David Burbridge)April2003151Free to view
Book reviewOur Cosmic Future: Humanity's Fate in the Universe

Keywords

cosmology
Nikos Prantzos (John Jefferson Davis)April2003151Free to view
Book reviewTrials of the Monkey - An Accidental Memoir

Keywords

Darwin
Matthew Chapman (Paul Wraight)April2003151Free to view
Book reviewThe Cosmic Dance: Science Discovers the Mysterious Harmony of the Universe

Keywords

holistic science
Giuseppe Del Re (Arthur Jones)April2003151Free to view
Book reviewWhen Science Meets Religion: Enemies, Strangers or Partners?

Keywords

complementary
Ian Barbour (Andrew Fox)April2003151Free to view
Book reviewThe Mind of the Universe: Understanding Science and Religion

Keywords

emergent properties
Mario Artigas (Philip Bligh)April2003151Free to view
Book reviewReligion in Mind

Keywords

cognitive approach
Jensine Andresen (ed.) (Peter McCarthy)April2003151Free to view
Book reviewHow God Looks If You Don't Start in Church: A Technologist's View

Keywords

technology
Michael Ranken (Alan Jiggins)April2003151Free to view
Book reviewGenetic Turning Points: The ethics of human genetic intervention

Keywords

ethics, genetics
James C. Peterson (Dr K.N.P Mickleson)April2003151Free to view
Book reviewPerspectives on Prayer

Keywords

prayer
Fraser Watts (Diana Briggs)April2003151Free to view
Book reviewMathematics in a Postmodern Age: A Christian Perspective

Keywords

mathematics,postmodernism
Russell W. Howell W. James Bradley (eds.) (Colin Reeves)April2003151Free to view
Book reviewNature, Design and Science: The Status of Design in Natural Science

Keywords

design
Del Ratzsch (Steve Bishop)April2003151Free to view
Book reviewDarwin's God: Evolution and the problem of evil

Keywords

evolution,evil,Darwin
Cornelius G. Hunter (Tom Hartman)April2003151Free to view
Book reviewAnnie's Box

Keywords

Darwin
Randal Keynes (Michael Roberts)April2003151Free to view
Book reviewThe Genetic Gods: Evolution and Belief in Human Affairs

Keywords

genetics,evolution
John C. Avise (Caroline Berry)April2003151Free to view
ArticleEditorial: Geography and the Science-Faith DebateDenis AlexanderApril2003151Free to view
ArticleA Christian Basis for Science

Abstract

Why is science to be trusted? Many now challenge it. Modern science grew out of a belief in the orderliness of the physical world, which could be relied upon because a rational Creator had made it. Empiricists swept aside the theistic assumptions that made science possible, and they have been succeeded by a postmodernism which challenges the idea of reason and of an objective world. Postmodernism cannot escape the charge of relativism, and it removes all possibility of providing an intellectual basis for science. Yet science needs a metaphysical grounding if it is to be defensible. It can find this in the notion of an ordered Creation and a Godgiven rationality.

Keywords

Order, rationality, empiricism, postmodernism, relativism
Roger TriggApril2003151Free to view
CorrespondenceSome Thoughts on Causality and Design

Keywords

causality,design
Revd. Philip BlighOctober2002142Free to view
ArticleMaintaining Scientific and Christian Truths in a Postmodern World

Abstract

I should like to begin by thanking the organisers of this conference for inviting a theologian to participate in a gathering of eminent scientists.1 In one sense, of course, that mere fact is a reflection of our times. The pressures of global- ization embrace much more than the obvious truth that highly diverse cultures mutually influence one another today. They mean, as well, that at a time when discrete disciplines are becoming more and more specialised, and in that sense narrower and narrower, there are many calls for cross-disciplinary explo- rations, and I suppose that this conference, in part, is a fruit of such pressures. Ideally, that is a good thing. We must frankly admit, however, that not a few of the strident voices that clamour for cross-disciplinary study, some of them more articulate than well advised, are crossing disciplines with an exuberant glee that seeks to domesticate other domains of inquiry with the hegemony of postmodern epistemology. That sums up at least part of the contemporary clash between scientists and many philosophers of science. We know how you think, the latter say to the former, and so our task is to expose your blindspots, and teach you the proper way to think. Since both Christian confessionalism and science are facing a similar onslaught, it is not too surprising that we should be drawn together in a com- mon defence. For both parties have something in common: we both think there is such a thing as culture-transcending truth, and that we human beings have some access to it.2 For those who are both scientists and Christians, it is scarcely surprising that some should wonder if it might be profitable to pool our resources as we engage in this debate. In this paper my aims are modest. I propose to offer a summary of the chal- lenge, a survey of responses, and a pair of suggestions.

Keywords

postmodernism
Donald A. CarsonOctober2002142Free to view
ArticleScience and Postmodernism - Further Reflections

Keywords

postmodernism
EditorialOctober2002142Free to view
ArticleHuman Cloning: A Watershed forScience and Ethics?

Abstract

The possibility that human beings will be cloned elicits widespread opprobrium from a wide spectrum of the population, Christians included, so much so that calls for its banning are frequently heard. The reasons for the strength of this opposition are profound and serious. They are based on the arguments that cloning: will imperil human dignity, represents a technological manipulation of human reproduction, will harm the resulting child, involves experimentation on human embryos, represents excessive human control, and is antagonistic to Christian aspirations. In assessing these arguments, concern is expressed with the assertions that cloning will inevitably lead to the instrumentalisation of human beings, that clones will be forced to walk in the footsteps of others, that their lack of genetic uniqueness will lead to a lack of human uniqueness, and that clones will invariably be treated as a product and not as a gift. The important role of control in human affairs is explored, with its repercussions for genetic control. While these criticisms do not lead to advocacy of human cloning, they encourage us to revisit the principles needed to guide us in our relationship to all aspects of God's world.

Keywords

human cloning, human dignity, human reproduction, manipulation, human embryos
D. Gareth JonesOctober2002142Free to view
ArticleThe Problem of Mental Causation: HowDoes Reason Get its Grip on theBrain?

Abstract

Twenty years ago, when I first became involved in the theology and science dia- logue, it was possible to ask whether there was really anything for scientists and theologians to talk about. It is important to remember that some of the most powerful influences in the development of modern theology, such as Immanuel Kant and Friedrich Schleiermacher, had argued that religion and science have nothing to do with one another. Various intellectual strategies for insulating theology from science have made use of body­soul dualism. Put crudely, science can study the body but the soul is the province of theology. Such strategies, however, have become prob- lematic in that neuroscientists are now studying all of the human faculties once attributed to the soul. I would argue that Christians who have not already done so ought to join philosophers and neuroscientists in adopting a physicalist account of the per- son.1 The problems with dualism, in my judgment, are insurmountable. First, it may well be conceptually impossible to give an account of mind­body inter- action: how can something non-material interact causally with material enti- ties? Second, while neuroscience can never prove that there is no mind or soul, it is increasingly clear that, to quote Laplace out of context, we have no need of that hypothesis. Finally, in addition to being unnecessary on biblical or theo- logical grounds, dualism is theologically undesirable due to its penchant for distorting Christian priorities. Briefly, what I mean here is that the adoption of dualism gave Christians something to care about (their souls) in place of Jesus' primary concern, which was the Kingdom of God. There are problems with physicalism, also. Most of the problems come down, in one way or another, to the issue of reductionism.2 If humans are essentially bodies, can we still understand ourselves to have features once attributed to an immaterial mind or soul, such as rationality, morality and free will? What I intend to do in this paper is to suggest the outlines of an approach to the problem of rationality. Here is the problem in brief: if humans are purely physical entities, how can it fail to be the case that their thoughts are deter- mined by physical laws and, if so, what happens to our conception of rational- ity? This problem is discussed in the philosophical literature as the problem of mental causation. Philosopher of mind Jaegwon Kim expresses it as a dilemma: he argues that mental properties will turn out to be reducible to physical properties unless one countenances some sort of downward causation. But such downward efficacy of the mental would suggest an ontological status for the mental that verges on dualism.3 My plan in this paper is to suggest a strategy for solving the problem of mental causation by providing an account of the downward efficacy of the mental that leaves an ontologically physicalist account of the human person intact.

Keywords

reductionism,physicalism
Nancey MurphyOctober2002142Free to view
ArticleExplaining or Explaining Away?

Abstract

A monolithic view of the concept of explanation has been responsible for what is, arguably, a cluster of misunderstandings about the interplay between science and theology. This is a chronic feature of science and theology disputes and, in the plethora of popular books on cosmology, appears to be on the increase. This paper takes the concept of explanation to be multiform and considers various types of explanation and explanatory type-errors which occur in the science­theology debate. Examples from the cluster of misunderstandings are examined, including the ubiquitous `God-of-the-gaps'; Atkins' `infinitely lazy creator'; Dawkins' claim that `religion is a scientific theory'; the idea of `need' and `room' for God in science; the phenomenon of processes masquerading as ultimate causes; the alleged alternatives of Big Bang v. Creation and organic evolution v. Creation; the equating of naming with explaining and explaining with explaining away; reductionism; functionalism and psychological/ sociological/ sociobiological/ anthropological debunking of religion.

Keywords

explanation, science, theology, religion, God-of-the-gaps, reductionism
Michael PooleOctober2002142Free to view
ArticleThe Postmodern Attack on ScientificRealism

Abstract

In this paper I examine three themes which figure prominently in what can be termed `postmodern' analyses of science and religion, namely relativism, sociological deconstructivism and anti-rationalism. There are a number of conceptual difficulties with the central tenets of what many post-moderns claim. I sketch these problems and extract a common moral, namely that robust, objective ideas of reason, meaning and truth are presupposed by the very activities of assertion and enquiry. If that is correct, then in so far as both science and religion involve these activities, it must be the case that the appropriate understanding of reason, meaning and truth in these domains is, contra many postmodernists, an objective one. Keywords: Anti-rationalism, critical realism, incommensurability, objectivity, post-modernism, relativism, sociological deconstructivism.

Keywords

Anti-rationalism, critical realism, incommensurability, objectivity, post-modernism, relativism, sociological deconstructivism
John L. TaylorOctober2002142Free to view
Book reviewPsychological Studies on Spiritual andReligious DevelopmentBeing Human: The Case of Religion,Vol.2

Keywords

psychology
K. Helmut Reich Fritz K. Oser W. George Scarlett (Rosamund Bourke)October2002142Free to view
Book reviewReason, Science & Faith

Keywords

reason,science,scripture
Roger Forster Paul Marston (Andrew Halestrap) October2002142Free to view
Book reviewAd Litteram: How Augustine, Calvinand Barth Read the "Plain Sense" ofGenesis 1-3

Keywords

genesis
K.E. Greene-McCreight (Ernest Lucas)October2002142Free to view
Book reviewRebuilding the Matrix: Science and Faith in the 21st Century

Keywords

evolution
Denis Alexander (John Polkinghorne)October2002142Free to view
Book reviewGod for the 21st Century

Keywords

God
Russell Stannard (Ed) (John Bausor)October2002142Free to view
Book reviewChristianity and Western Thought, Volume 2: Faith and Reason in the 19th Century

Keywords

western thought,19th century
S. Wilkens A.G. Padgett (Colin A. Russell)October2002142Free to view
Book reviewThe Triumph of Evolution and the Failure of Creationism

Keywords

evolution,creationism
Niles Eldredge (R.J. Berry)October2002142Free to view
Book reviewIn the Beginning was Information

Keywords

information science
Werner Gitt (Rodney Holder)October2002142Free to view
Book reviewGod After Darwin: A Theology of EvolutionJohn F. Haught (Arthur Jones)April2002141Free to view
Book reviewThe Human Person in Science and TheologyN.H. Gregersen,W.B. Drees, U. Görman (Eds.) (Graham McFarlane)April2002141Free to view
Book reviewHallmarks of Design: Evidences of design in the natural worldStuart Burgess (Oliver R. Barclay)April2002141Free to view
Book reviewCan we believe Genesis today?Ernest Lucas (Bennet McInnes)April2002141Free to view
Book reviewBabel’s Shadow: Genetic technologies in a fracturing societyPete Moore (Dr Ken Mickleson)April2002141Free to view
ArticleWhy is Francis of Assisi the Patron Saint of Ecologists?

Abstract

In 1967 the historian Lynn White proposed St. Francis as a patron saint for ecologists. In this article I subject his recommendation to a critical analysis. I set out by reviewing the arguments presented by White in favour of Francis as ecology’s patron saint and go on to consider whether White’s portrait of St. Francis is accurate. This takes us back to the medieval setting of St. Francis’ life and to written sources of that era, and brings us to a consideration of the difference between saints and ecologists/ environmental scientists. My conclusion from this comparison is that this medieval man’s outlook on the natural world is realms apart from that held by practitioners of modern ecology and environmental science, but perhaps less far removed from the perspectives of self-styled ‘deep ecologists’. Has Francis then rightly become the patron saint of those for whom ecology (in the sense of the environmental issue) has become a new religion, but wrongly for ‘ordinary’ ecologists and other environmental scientists? Can St. Francis still serve as a source of inspiration for the latter, or are they not in need of a patron? Finally, the question of whether this is more than merely a historical or terminological issue is addressed.

Keywords

St. Francis; patron saint; saints and nature; ecology; environmental scientist; spiritual life.
Jan J. BoersemaApril2002141Free to view
ArticleEschatology and the Nature of Humans: a Reconsideration of Pertinent Biblical Evidence

Abstract

Among persons holding to some form of anthropological dualism, a crucial piece of evidence has been the presumption of the centrality to biblical eschatology of a disembodied intermediate state. The question posed in this essay is whether the biblical materials do in fact anticipate a waiting period of disembodied existence, experienced by the dead person, between death and resurrection. Focusing on three strands of evidence typically viewed as pivotal in the discussion – the concept of Sheol and the nature of the ‘shades’ that inhabit Sheol, the significance of the Lukan Parable of the Rich Man and Lazarus and account of Jesus’ exchange with the criminal on the cross, and Paul’s concerns in 2 Corinthians 5:1-10 – I demonstrate the fallacy of this presumption and suggest that an eschatology, in which a disembodied, intermediate state plays a central role is poorly supported by the biblical evidence.

Keywords

intermediate state, human nature, soul, dualism.
Joel B. GreenApril2002141Free to view
ArticleChanging Portraits of Human Nature

Abstract

Research in neuropsychology underlines the ever tightening links between mind and brain. A recent President of the Royal College of Psychiatrists, Robert Kendell, writes ‘Not only is the distinction between mental and physical ill-founded and incompatible with contemporary understanding of disease, it is also damaging to the long-term interests of patients themselves’2. At the same time advances in evolutionary psychology, revealing so-called ‘mind reading’ abilities in non-human primates, seem to reopen questions about what is unique about humans. Taken together neuropsychology and evolutionary psychology offer portraits of human nature that question some of our traditional Christian beliefs and have implications for Christian living. As in some earlier dialogues between science and faith, we are prompted to re-examine some traditional interpretations of familiar biblical passages. There are no easy answers but it is suggested that we need to return to a more holistic view of human nature that links our uniqueness to the God given capacity for a personal relationship with our Creator.

Keywords

Human nature, cognitive psychology, neuropsychology, evolutionary psychology, soul, image of God, resurrection, spirituality, neurotheology.
Malcolm JeevesApril2002141Free to view
ArticleEditorial: Globalising Science & Christian BeliefDenis AlexanderApril2002141Free to view
Book reviewThe Future of the Universe – Chance, Chaos, God?Arnold Benz (Evan Cockshaw)April2002141Free to view
Book reviewOn Dying WellBoard for Social Responsibility of the Church of England (Alun Morinan)April2002141Free to view
Book reviewA Monk and Two Peas: The Story of Gregor Mendel and the Discovery of GeneticsRobin Marantz Henig (David Burbridge)April2002141Free to view
Book reviewThe Dating Game: One Man’s Search for the Age of the EarthCherry Lewis (Robert S. White)April2002141Free to view
Book reviewMany Worlds: The New Universe, Extraterrestrial Life & the Theological ImplicationsSteven Dick (Ed.) (John Jefferson Davis)April2002141Free to view
ArticleEditorial: Globalising Science & Christian BeliefDenis AlexanderApril2002141Free to view
ArticleGuest Editorial: What does Physics tell us about God?Owen GingerichOctober2001132Free to view
ArticleHuman Genetics and the Image of the Triune God

Abstract

The initial sequencing of the human genome, together with the rapidly developing technology of genetic manipulation, has brought into sharp focus some acute questions about what it means to be human. In this paper, some key issues are identified: biological determinism and reductionism, the meaning of health, the effect on personal identity of manipulating our genes and the moral limits which should be placed on our use of genetic manipulation. A Christian account of human personhood, made in the image and likeness of God, is developed, drawing on various theological sources including the Trinitarian theology of John Zizioulas and Jürgen Moltmann and the theological anthropology of Alistair McFadyen. It is argued (1) that our being and identity are rooted and grounded in God’s creation of us; (2) that human personhood, made in God’s image, is inescapably relational; (3) that even the best human relationships fall short of the fullness of God’s image, so that the work of God in Christ is needed for the fulfilment of God’s creative purpose. On the basis of this account, a response is given to deterministic and reductionist views of the human person, an understanding of health is articulated and some ethical conclusions about the use of genetic manipulation are drawn.

Keywords

Human genome, genetic manipulation, theological anthropology, personhood, ethics, health, determinism, reductionism
Neil G. MesserOctober2001132Free to view
DebateEssay Review – Neither Lifeless nor Mindless – a Commentary on ‘Reason, Science and Faith’ by Paul Marston & Roger ForsterDavid A. BoothOctober2001132Free to view
DebateResponse to BoothPaul MarstonOctober2001132Free to view
ArticleWhere science and history meet: some fresh challenges to the Christian faith?Colin A. RussellOctober2001132Free to view
ArticleThe Wilberforce-Huxley Debate: Why Did It Happen?John Hedley BrookeOctober2001132Free to view
DebateResponse to CullenNancey MurphyOctober2001132Free to view
CorrespondenceSupervenience and causality – A medical responseAlan J. GijsbersOctober2001132Free to view
Book reviewMusic to Move the StarsJane Hawking (Diana Briggs)October2001132Free to view
Book reviewMystery of Mysteries: Is Evolution a Social Construction?Michael Ruse (R J Berry)October2001132Free to view
Book reviewOrigins of Life, Second EditionFreeman Dyson (Margaret Ginzburg)October2001132Free to view
Book reviewThe Shaping of Rationality: Towards Interdisciplinarity in Theology and ScienceJ. Wentzel van Huyssteen (Adrian Brown)October2001132Free to view
Book reviewAlmost Like a Whale: The Origin of Species UpdatedSteve Jones (Andrew Halestrap)October2001132Free to view
Book reviewUnprecedented Choices: Religious Ethics at the Frontiers of Genetic ScienceAudrey R. Chapman (John A Bryant)October2001132Free to view
Book reviewFrom Global Warming to Dolly the Sheep: An Encyclopædia of Social Issues in Science and TechnologyDavid E. Newton (Celia Deane-Drummond)October2001132Free to view
Book reviewQuestions of Science: Exploring the interaction between science and faithAndrew Barton (Michael Walker)October2001132Free to view
Book reviewTowards a Democratic Science. Scientific Narration and Civic CommunicationRichard Harvey Brown (John Eldridge)October2001132Free to view
Book reviewIntelligent Design: The Bridge Between Science & TheologyWilliam A. Dembski (Ernest Lucas)October2001132Free to view
Book reviewElectromagnetism and the SacredLaurence W. Fagg (Roland Dobbs)October2001132Free to view
Book reviewScience & its Limits: The Natural Sciences in Christian Perspective (2nd edition)Del Ratzsch (Mike Poole)October2001132Free to view
Book reviewA Time to heal: A Contribution towards the Ministry of HealingThe Bishop of Chelmsford et alOctober2001132Free to view
Book reviewA Time to Heal: The Development of Good Practice in the Healing Ministry: A HandbookThe Bishop of Chelmsford et al (Dr. John Wilkinson)October2001132Free to view
Book reviewThe Care of Creation: Focusing Concern and ActionR.J. Berry (John M. Drake)October2001132Free to view
Book reviewThinking Clearly about God and ScienceDavid Wilkinson & Rob Frost (John Bausor)October2001132Free to view
Book reviewRare Earth: why complex life is uncommon in the universePeter D.Ward and Donald Brownlee (Bennet McInnes)October2001132Free to view
Book reviewChristians and BioethicsFraser Watts (Stuart Lucas)October2001132Free to view
Book reviewGroundwork of Science and ReligionPhilip Luscombe (Steve Bishop)October2001132Free to view
Book reviewScience and Theology since CopernicusPeter Barrett (John Polkinghorne)October2001132Free to view
Book reviewChristianity and Ecology: Seeking the Well-Being of Earth and HumansDieter T. Hessel & Rosemary Radford Ruether (Ron Elsdon)October2001132Free to view
ArticleGuest Editorial: An environmental imperative for the new MillenniumSir John HoughtonApril2001131Free to view
ArticleFine-Tuning, Many Universes, and Design

Abstract

In the light of the fine-tuning of the universe, I critique the postulation of the existence of infinitely many universes as an alternative to design. Among the problems identified with the hypothesis are (i) the existence of infinitely many universes depends critically on parameter choice; (ii) the probability that any universe in an ensemble is fine-tuned for life is zero; (iii) the physical realisation of any ensemble will exclude an infinity of possibilities; (iv) the hypothesis is untestable and unscientific; (v) the hypothesis is not consistent with the amount of order found in this universe, nor with the persistence of order. The explanatory power of the hypothesis is thus undermined. Even if this had been otherwise the hypothesis should be given a low prior probability on the grounds of lack of simplicity and economy. The design hypothesis then fares better on a simple probability comparison.

Keywords

Fine-tuning, many universes, cosmology, design
Rodney D. HolderApril2001131Free to view
ArticleJohn Ray, Father of Natural Historians

Abstract

John Ray (1627-1705) was a pivotal figure in both the history of biology and in our maturing of understanding the Bible in the light of secular knowledge. He was the son of an Essex blacksmith who became a Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, but resigned his fellowship to work with his pupil and patron Francis Willugby (1635-72) on a series of plant and animal classifications, which paved the way for Carl Linnaeus and inspired generations of naturalists. He is best known for his Wisdom of God Manifested in the Works of Creation (1691), which was plundered by Archdeacon Paley for his Natural Theology (1802). Although he lived when the rationalism of the Enlightenment was in the ascendant, Ray was not a deist; he was a man who rejoiced and worshipped God through studying God’s ‘book of works.’ His influence persisted throughout the 18th and 19th centuries, underlying the tensions that developed in natural theology and natural history with the impact of Darwin and the growth of scientific professionalism. Three centuries after his death, he provides both a model and a stimulus for a Christian approach to the natural world.

Keywords

John Ray, natural history, conservation, stewardship, creation care, natural theology
R. J. BerryApril2001131Free to view
ArticleNancey Murphy, Supervenience and Causality

Abstract

Nancey Murphy argues in Beyond Liberalism & Fundamentalism, that a post–modern approach to metaphysics, based on a non–reductive physicalism, will allow a fruitful bridging of the gap between interventionist and immanentist views of God’s interaction with the world. This is achieved through her contention that there are causally significant ‘higher level’ laws which can affect interactions and which are neither constrained by, nor reducible to, lower level laws (such as the laws of physics). Whilst her aim is to be applauded, her methodology is somewhat flawed. In particular, her scientific defence of a non–reductive view is shallow and unpersuasive, and her use of the philosophical concept of supervenience is both eccentric and unhelpful. Thus her argument regarding higher–level laws founders, taking with it her basis for a rapprochement between ‘liberals’ and ‘conservatives’ on this particular topic.

Keywords

causality, physicalism, reductionism, supervenience
Lindsay CullenApril2001131Free to view
ArticleA Mendelian Interpretation of Jacob’s Sheep

Abstract

The story of Jacob producing flocks of striped goats and black sheep starting from flocks in which these characteristics had been removed is considered from a Mendelian genetic viewpoint. Previous commentators have implied that the placing of branches in front of the animals arose from the belief that vivid sights during pregnancy would leave a mark on the offspring. However, the fact that Laban removed all the coloured animals from the flock he entrusted to Jacob, shows that the herdsmen knew that the colour of the offspring was influenced in some way by the colour of the parents. It was not necessary for the herdsmen to understand the exact rules of inheritance, only sufficient that, wherever possible, female animals were served by coloured males. It is proposed that the use of the branches referred to in the story was not an attempt to generate visual impressions influencing the females during pregnancy or conception, but instead the branches were used to build a fence to ensure that only coloured male animals could serve the females.

Keywords

Genetics, Jacob, sheep, goats, Mendel
J.D.PearsonApril2001131Free to view
DebateOn Numbers in Numbers

Abstract

The apparently very large numbers of Israelites at the time of the Exodus, as recorded in the book of Numbers, have been a subject of much debate. This paper examines the recent suggestion by Prof. C.J. Humphreys that the Hebrew word ‘lp can mean “troop” as well as “thousand”. It is found that his approach encounters some significant problems. On the other hand, the numbers taken at face value, with ‘lp consistently translated as “thousand”, indicate a relatively small proportion of Israelites under the age of 20. This may have implications for explaining the low number of first-born males. Also, it suggests that the total number of Israelites was about 1.6 million.

Keywords

Exodus, Moses, census, thousand
John BylApril2001131Free to view
DebateResponse to Professor BylColin J. HumphreysApril2001131Free to view
Book reviewSex and Death: An Introduction to Philosophy of BiologyKim Sterelny and Paul E. Griffiths (Andrew Fox)April2001131Free to view
Book reviewEinstein and Religion. Physics and theologyMax Jammer (Lawrence Osborn)April2001131Free to view
Book reviewDimensions of Forgiveness – Psychological Research & Theological PerspectivesEverett L. Worthington, Jr. (ed.) (Søren Holm)April2001131Free to view
Book reviewThe Way of the (Modern) World Or, Why it’s Tempting to Live As If God Doesn’t ExistCraig M Gay (Nicholas Moir)April2001131Free to view
Book reviewNoah’s Flood: The Genesis Story in Western ThoughtNorman Cohn (Stephen Walley)April2001131Free to view
Book reviewThe Origin of Life: From the Birth of Life to the Origin of LanguageJohn Maynard Smith and Eors Szathmary (Margaret Ginzburg)April2001131Free to view
Book reviewThe Golem: What You Should Know about Science (second edition)Harry Collins and Trevor Pinch (David Burbridge)April2001131Free to view
Book reviewThe Golem at Large: What You Should Know about TechnologyHarry Collins and Trevor Pinch (David Burbridge)April2001131Free to view
Book reviewValuing People: Human Value in a World of Medical TechnologyD. Gareth Jones (John Wilkinson)April2001131Free to view
Book reviewNaturwissenschaft und Theologie im DialogUlrich Kropac (Søren Holm)April2001131Free to view
Book reviewBeyond the CosmosHugh Ross (Bennet McInnes)April2001131Free to view
Book reviewThe Psychology of AwakeningGay Watson, Stephen Batchelor & Guy Claxton (David Burnett)April2001131Free to view
Book reviewA House Built on Sand: Exposing Postmodernist Myths About ScienceNoretta Koertge (editor) (Steve Bishop)April2001131Free to view
Book reviewTower of Babel: The Evidence against the New CreationismRobert T. Pennock (Ernest Lucas)April2001131Free to view
Book reviewGenetic Maps and Human Imaginations: the limits of science in understanding who we areBarbara Katz Rothman (Caroline Berry)April2001131Free to view
Book reviewInventing the Flat EarthJeffrey Burton Russell (Denis Alexander)April2001131Free to view
Book reviewChoices at the Heart of TechnologyRuth Conway (Hazel Lucas)April2001131Free to view
Book reviewThe Sun in the Church: Cathedrals as Solar ObservatoriesJ. L. Heilbron (Owen Gingerich)April2001131Free to view
Book reviewDarwinism Defeated? The Johnson-Lamoureux Debate on Biological OriginsJohnson, P. E., Lamoureux, D. O. et al (Mike Poole)April2001131Free to view
Book reviewThe Interplay between Scientific and Theological Worldviews, Parts I & IINiels H Gregersen, Ulf Görman and Christoph Wassermann (eds) (Arthur Jones)April2001131Free to view
Book reviewThe Power of the Force: The Spirituality of the Star Wars FilmsDavid Wilkinson (Ruth Gouldbourne)April2001131Free to view
Book reviewDarwinism Comes to AmericaR. L. Numbers (Michael Roberts)April2001131Free to view
Book reviewDebating DarwinJ. C. Greene (Michael Roberts)April2001131Free to view
Book reviewCan Science Dispense With Religion?Mehdi Golshani (Editor) (Marion Syms)April2001131Free to view
ArticleEditorial: The Human Genome ProjectDenis AlexanderOctober2000122Free to view
ArticleIs Communication From God Really Possible? A Conceptual Problem

Abstract

The medievals believed that we had been equipped with a God-given ability to conceptualize the world as God had ordered it. Since the beginning of the modern era, we have become ever more aware that many, if not most, of our concepts are the product of culture and of our own creation rather than being God-given. If God’s concepts are different from our own, how could He communicate His concepts to us, since whatever words He would use would signify human concepts rather than His own. In light of this, is communication from God through human language possible, or if possible is it limited to God expressing Himself through our concepts rather than His own? This paper examines this question and offers an explanation of how God could communicate His conceptual understanding to us in spite of the fact that His concepts are nothing like those concepts which are given us by our language community and for the most part make up our understanding.

Keywords

Concepts, Berkeley, Locke, Communication, God
James DanaherOctober2000122Free to view
ArticleA Typology for the Theological Reception of Scientific Innovation

Abstract

The responses of members of the theological community to innovations from the sciences is generally richly varied rather than univocal. This article attempts to justify the idea that scientific ideas can feed constructively into the theological endeavour, and presents a five-fold typology for the responses theologians can make to a scientific novelty. This typology is illustrated with reference to the responses of some nineteenth century Anglican Clergymen to Darwin’s ‘Origin of Species’; and, as a ‘thought experiment’, it is used to suggest ways in which theologians might respond to possible future developments in Artificial Intelligence.

Keywords

typology, doctrine, development, Newman, Darwin, Artificial Intelligence
Michael FullerOctober2000122Free to view
ArticleJewish Understandings of Genesis 1 to 3

Abstract

This article examines the understandings of the creation accounts in Genesis 1–3 found in various early Jewish writings including rabbinical, philosophical and mystical/apocalyptic works. In general, Jewish writers distinguished various levels of meaning, including an allegorical as well as a literal or historical level. At the historical level of interpretation, however, certain aspects of the narrative were taken as symbolic or metaphorical, and a purely ‘literalistic’ understanding was not deemed natural to the language. The relevance of this historical material is discussed in the context of contemporary conservative approaches to interpreting the creation passages.

Keywords

Creation, Genesis, Jewish, Allegorical, Literalistic, Rabbinic
Justin MarstonOctober2000122Free to view
ArticlePaul and the Person

Abstract

Discussions of Biblical anthropology inevitably lead to the question as to whether it is fundamentally monist or dualist in form. In his recent article ‘Scripture and the Human Person: Further Reflections’ Joel Green put forward the modest proposal that anthropological monism is at least consistent with several New Testament passages which have often been interpreted in dualist fashion. This article takes this discussion a step further and interprets the Pauline data in the light of Paul’s soteriological purposes. The conclusion is that Paul deliberately varies his anthropological ontology in order to defend more central anthropological themes. It is argued that following Paul’s anthropology means more than accepting his ontological conclusions, it means adopting a method. This is shown to have implications for the contemporary use of biblical ontologies of the person.

Keywords

Paul; theological anthropology; theoanthropology; ontology; dualism; monism; soul; spirit
Brian G. EdgarOctober2000122Free to view
CorrespondenceH. RussmanH. RussmanOctober2000122Free to view
CorrespondenceP.G. NelsonP.G. NelsonOctober2000122Free to view
CorrespondenceR. KnightR. KnightOctober2000122Free to view
CorrespondenceResponse from R.J. BerryR.J. BerryOctober2000122Free to view
Book reviewThe Case for GodPeter S. Williams (Robert Ellis)October2000122Free to view
Book reviewCan Reindeer Fly?Roger Highfield (Bennet McInnes)October2000122Free to view
Book reviewThe Star of Bethlehem: The Legacy of the MagiMichael R Molnar (Colin Humphreys)October2000122Free to view
Book reviewThe Star of Bethlehem: An Astronomer’s ViewMark Kidger (Colin Humphreys)October2000122Free to view
Book reviewRocks of Ages: Science and Religion in the Fullness of LifeSteven Jay Gould (Andrew Briggs)October2000122Free to view
Book reviewThe Design Inference: Eliminating Chance Through Small ProbabilitiesWilliam A. Dembski (Rodney Holder)October2000122Free to view
Book reviewLo grande, lo pequeño y la mente humanaRoger Penrose, with Abner Shimony, Nancy Cartwright and Stephen Hawking (Enrique Mota)October2000122Free to view
Book reviewThe Pattern on the StoneW. Daniel Hillis (Hazel Lucas)October2000122Free to view
Book reviewCultural Boundaries of Science: Credibility on the LineThomas F. Gieryn (Steve Bishop)October2000122Free to view
Book reviewReligion & Magic: Approaches & TheoriesGraham Cunningham (David Burnett)October2000122Free to view
Book reviewOn Giants’ Shoulders – Studies in Christian ApologeticsEdgar Powell (Andrew Halestrap)October2000122Free to view
Book reviewWider Horizons: Explorations in Science and Human ExperienceDavid Lorimer et al. (J.N. Hawthorne)October2000122Free to view
Book reviewEarthshaping Earthkeeping: A Doctrine of CreationJohn Weaver (Ron Elsdon)October2000122Free to view
Book reviewThe Meme MachineSusan Blackmore (Rosamund Bourke)October2000122Free to view
Book reviewIsaac Newton’s Observation on the Prophecies of Daniel and the Apocalypse of St. John. A Critical Edition: Prophecy as HistoryS.J. Barnett (ed.) (Ernest Lucas)October2000122Free to view
ArticleEditorial: Science and PostmodernismErnest LucasApril2000121Free to view
ArticleModern Astronomy and Our Perception of the Universe

Abstract

The change in our perception of the cosmos introduced by modern astronomy, starting with Copernicus, Galileo and Kepler, has had wideranging repercussions on the human worldview, both secular and religious. The immensity of the universe and the apparent bleakness of outer space produce possible problems for faith; these are examined, and solutions are proposed.

Keywords

astronomy, universe, God, Milton, Pascal, Nietzsche, space
Peter J. BusseyApril2000121Free to view
ArticleHow Many People Were in the Exodus from Egypt?

Abstract

The very large numbers of people at the Exodus from Egypt recorded in the book of Numbers is a very well known Old Testament problem. In this paper a new mathematical and textural analysis is given which shows that if there were ‘273 first born Israelites who exceed the number of Levites’ (Num. iii 43), then the total number of Israelite men aged over 20 in the census following the Exodus was about 5000, not 603,550 as apparently recorded in Numbers. The apparent error in Numbers arises because the ancient Hebrew word ‘lp can mean ‘thousand’, ‘troop’, or ‘leader’, according to the context. On our interpretation, all the figures in Numbers are internally consistent including the numbers at both censuses, the encampment numbers, etc. In addition we deduce that the number of males in the average Israelite family at the time of the Exodus was 8 to 9, consistent with the concern of the Egyptians that the Israelites had ‘multiplied greatly’ whilst in Egypt (Exod. i 7). The total number of men, women and children at the Exodus was about 20,000 rather than the figure of over 2 million apparently suggested by the book of Numbers.

Keywords

Exodus, Moses, Numbers, census, thousand.
Colin J. HumphreysApril2000121Free to view
ArticleConsonance, Assimilation or Correlation?: Science and Religion ................. 35 Courses in Higher Education

Abstract

The recent rapid increase in the number of courses on science and religion in higher education in Britain means it is now possible to analyse the different educational strategies employed and to identify different assumptions about how science and religion can be related. The analysis of sixteen course outlines, coupled with interviews with staff of four courses, shows that the typology of Barbour is not sensitive enough for this purpose as all the courses assume that there is to be dialogue rather than conflict, independence or integration. Polkinghorne’s categories of assimilation and consonance are useful as they represent different approaches in dialogue but many courses do not fit neatly into either of these categories. It is illuminating to think of courses as encouraging the contextualisation of faith in a scientific context, and the category of correlation is introduced from studies of method in theology. While some courses aim merely to show that there can be consonance between science and religion, there are others which work towards the more systematic interaction of assimilation, and there are yet others which appear to be intermediate and allow for different patterns of correlation in different areas of dialogue.

Keywords

Assimilation, consonance, contextual theology, correlation, educational strategies, higher education, science and religion courses, types of theology
Peter Fulljames and Tonie StolbergApril2000121Free to view
DebateThe Fall: History or Myth?Peter AddinallApril2000121Free to view
DebateThe Fall of HistoryR.J. BerryApril2000121Free to view
CorrespondenceDavid A. BoothDavid A. BoothApril2000121Free to view
Book reviewScience and Theology: An IntroductionJohn Polkinghorne (Mike Poole)April2000121Free to view
Book reviewA Theory of Almost EverythingRobert Barry (Reg Luhman)April2000121Free to view
Book reviewGreen Eye of the StormJohn Rendle-Short (Steve Bishop)April2000121Free to view
Book reviewGod, Religion and RealityStephen R.L. Clark (Christopher Southgate)April2000121Free to view
Book reviewTeaching about Science and ReligionMichael Poole (Michael Walker)April2000121Free to view
Book reviewVirtual Morality: Christian Ethics in the Computer AgeGraham Houston (David Attwood)April2000121Free to view
Book reviewThe Roots of Science: An Investigative Journey Through the World’s ReligionsHarold Turner (Ernest Lucas)April2000121Free to view
Book reviewConsilience: The Unity of KnowledgeEdward O. Wilson (Arthur Jones)April2000121Free to view
Book reviewNoah‘s Flood: The New Scientific Discoveries about the Event that Changed HistoryWilliam Ryan and Walter Pitman (Bob White)April2000121Free to view
Book reviewAll Life is Problem SolvingKarl R. Popper (Valerie MacKay)April2000121Free to view
Book reviewRomancing the Universe: Theology, Science and CosmologyJeffrey G. Sobosan (Rodney Holder)April2000121Free to view
Book reviewUnweaving the Rainbow: Science, Delusion and the Appetite for WonderRichard Dawkins (Mike Poole)April2000121Free to view
Book reviewThe Body of Compassion: Ethics, Medicine and the ChurchJoel J. Shuman (John Wilkinson)April2000121Free to view
Book reviewGenes, Genesis & God: Values and their origins in natural and human historyHolmes Rolston III (John A. Bryant)April2000121Free to view
Book reviewThe Fifth MiraclePaul Davis (Stuart Lucas)April2000121Free to view
Book reviewBeing a Person: Where Faith and Science MeetJohn Habgood (Mike Rees)April2000121Free to view
Book reviewBrave New Worlds: Staying Human in the Genetic FutureBrian Appleyard (Brian Haymes)April2000121Free to view
Book reviewTeaching About Evolution and the Nature of ScienceNational Academy of Sciences (Adrian Brown)April2000121Free to view
Book reviewScience and Religion: an introductionAlister E. McGrath (William K. Kay)April2000121Free to view
Book reviewGod, Humanity, and the Cosmos: A Textbook in Science and ReligionChristopher Southgate (ed.) John Weaver)April2000121Free to view
Book reviewWhatever Happened to the Soul?Warren S. Brown, Nancey Murphy and H. Newton Malony (eds.) (Paul Marston)April2000121Free to view
ArticleEditorial: Reflections on the Twentieth CenturyDenis AlexanderOctober1999112Free to view
ArticleThe Human Genome Project: Tool of Atheistic Reductionism or Embodiment of the Christian Mandate to Heal?Francis CollinsOctober1999112Free to view
ArticleEastern Religions and Modern Physics – a Further Examination

Abstract

A further study is made of the claims that modern physics confirms certain aspects of eastern religious philosophy, with special reference to particle physics and quantum mechanics. Some particular topics discussed are complementarity, the role of the ‘observer’ in quantum mechanics, questions concerning unity and interrelationship, and the existence of quantum events. The ultimate role of rationality in the universe is contrasted between East and West. In general, a negative conclusion is reached: most of the similarities are superficial only. In one or two cases there may even be conflicts with some aspects of eastern teachings.

Keywords

physics, eastern philosophy, Hinduism, Buddhism, Taoism, quantum mechanics, complementarity, elementary particles, Romantic movement
Peter J. BusseyOctober1999112Free to view
ArticleBiodiversity Loss in the Developing World and Sustainable Development

Abstract

Plants and animals are major components of the Creator’s comprehensive provision for human existence, contributing to man’s physical needs and providing the basis for aesthetic and intellectual fulfilment. They also provide a demonstration of God’s power and creative genius, meant to engender humility and worship. Humankind has a God-given mandate to exercise responsible stewardship over the whole of the material creation, including global biodiversity, which entails increasing their understanding of it and using it carefully to meet a variety of needs. Based on his own professional experience, the author examines selected aspects of the stewardship of tropical biodiversity, using examples from Asia and Africa including the arid vegetation of Arabia, the Borneo rainforest, the Asiatic lion, Great Indian rhinoceros and the African elephant. As elsewhere in the world, these resources are frequently threatened by a lack of care and over-exploitation driven by short-term economic considerations which jeopardise their availability to future generations. Ways are explored by which a biblical concept of stewardship can influence the sustainability of man’s use of living natural resources. The aim is to achieve a balance between the various original purposes of creation, avoiding destructive over-utilization on the one hand and excessive protection and veneration of charismatic species on the other. Christians should recognise their responsibility to both care for biodiversity and encourage proper human development.

Keywords

Biodiversity, stewardship, conservation, sustainable development, wildlife utilization
John B. SaleOctober1999112Free to view
ArticlePortraits of Human Nature: Reconciling Neuroscience and Christian AnthropologyWarren S. Brown Malcolm A. JeevesOctober1999112Free to view
DebateComment on ‘This Cursed Earth’Philip DuceOctober1999112Free to view
DebateResponse to Philip DuceR.J. BerryOctober1999112Free to view
Book reviewThe Creative LoopErich Harth (Diana Briggs)October1999112Free to view
Book reviewAnglo-American PostmodernityNancey Murphy (Michael Alsford)October1999112Free to view
Book reviewScience, Life and Christian Belief: A Survey and AssessmentMalcolm A. Jeeves and R.J. Berry (Francis Barton)October1999112Free to view
Book reviewScience in Faith: a Christian Perspective on Teaching ScienceArthur Jones (ed.) (John Bausor)October1999112Free to view
Book reviewHuman Cloning: Religious ResponsesRonald Cole-Turner (Caroline Berry)October1999112Free to view
Book reviewHuman Nature at the Millennium: Reflections on the Integration of Psychology and ChristianityMalcolm A. Jeeves (Rosamund Bourke)October1999112Free to view
Book reviewDescartes and his Contemporaries: Meditations, Objections, and RepliesRoger Ariew and Marjorie Grene (ed.) (John Hedley Brooke)October1999112Free to view
Book reviewLifelines: Biology, Freedom, DeterminismSteven Rose (John A. Bryant)October1999112Free to view
Book reviewHow Large is God?: The Voices of Scientists and TheologiansJohn Marks Templeton (ed.) (David Burbridge)October1999112Free to view
Book reviewReading the Mind of GodPhilip Duce (Richard Dimery)October1999112Free to view
Book reviewFertility and Faith: The Ethics of Human FertilizationBrendan McCarthy (Gareth Jones)October1999112Free to view
Book reviewMatters of Life and Death: Today’s Healthcare Dilemmas in the Light of Christian FaithJohn Wyatt (Gareth Jones)October1999112Free to view
Book reviewEngineering Genesis: The Ethics of Genetic Engineering in Non-Human SpeciesDonald Bruce & Ann Bruce (eds.) (Celia Deane-Drummond)October1999112Free to view
Book reviewIn Defence of the SoulKeith Ward (Revd. Dr. William K. Kay)October1999112Free to view
Book reviewThe Spirit of Science: from Experiment to ExperienceDavid Lorimer (ed.) (Ernest Lucas)October1999112Free to view
Book reviewTheology and Biotechnology: Implications for a New ScienceCelia Deane-Drummond (Darryl Macer)October1999112Free to view
Book reviewThe Quest for MeaningL. Francis Edmunds (Paul Marston)October1999112Free to view
Book reviewThe Cosmos and the Creator, An introduction to the Theology of CreationDavid Fergusson (Graham McFarlane)October1999112Free to view
Book reviewStories and Their Limits: Narrative Approaches to BioethicsHilde Lindemann Nelson (ed.) (Sue Patterson)October1999112Free to view
ArticleESSAY REVIEW Reconstructing Nature: the Engagement of ScienceColin A. RussellOctober1999112Free to view
ArticleGuest Editorial: Genetically Modified Foods: Why so much Concern?Derek BurkeApril1999111Free to view
ArticleWhy God Must ExistKeith WardApril1999111Free to view
ArticleCosmic Endgame: Theological Reflections on Recent Scientific Speculations on the Ultimate Fate of the Universe

Abstract

This article interacts with scientific scenarios concerning the ultimate fate of the universe developed by the physicists Freeman Dyson, Frank Barrow, and John Tipler. The history of ‘thermodynamic pessimism’ dating from the 19th century is briefly reviewed, and it is argued that these scenarios do not succeed in escaping this pessimism. It is concluded that any ultimate hope for humanity can not be found on the basis of known laws of physics alone, but must be derived from the standpoint of divine revelation.

Keywords

Thermodynamics, heat death of universe, eschatology, Dyson, Barrow, Tipler
John J. DavisApril1999111Free to view
ArticleThis Cursed Earth: Is ‘the Fall’

Abstract

The bible story of the Fall in Genesis 3 is commonly referred to as a ‘myth’ but this does not help us to understand what reality there may be behind the biblical account. The interpretation suggested here is that: a. Adam could be an historical individual if God’s image, which distinguishes humans from other animals, is regarded as a divine act somehow linked to in-breathing (without genetic connotations) at some point in history; b. If Adam was created during history, there is no problem in assuming that he also rebelled against (disobeyed) his creator (i.e. sinned) at a time within history; the primary effect of this would be alienation from God, the source of his life, i.e. that he died. Since animal and plant death pre-dated Adam, the key to this human death is that it is specifically spiritual death, i.e. separation from God; c. God’s first commands to the newly created humans were to care for and pastor the rest of creation, acting as God’s vicegerents; the consequence of separation from God is that our first parents failed to steward creation for God, producing disorder. Our continuing failures are due to un (or self) directed disorderliness not the result of an innate defect. d. Christ has enabled us to resume our intended role through his reconciling work. But creation will continue to ‘groan’ until we accept the responsibilities which are part of the privileges of becoming a ‘new creation’ in Christ.

Keywords

Fall, Adam, death, Eden, covenant, reconciliation
R.J. BerryApril1999111Free to view
DebateScripture and the Human Person: Further Reflections

Abstract

Dr. David Booth has sketched a number of important considerations for a ‘biblical’ and ‘scientific understanding’ of human nature, and has thus provided a helpful orientation to what is sure to be one of the pivotal issues for the Christian community in the West in coming decades. However, the case for a unitary account of the human person in Scripture does not rest so fully on problematic word studies but actually goes to the heart of what it means in Scripture to be ‘human.’

Keywords

human nature, soul, dualism, monism
Joel B. GreenApril1999111Free to view
DebateMultiple Universes as an Explanation for Fine-TuningRodney D. HolderApril1999111Free to view
DebateMultiple Universe Explanations Are Not ExplanationsPhil DoweApril1999111Free to view
DebateFurther Observations on Mîn, ‘Kind’

Abstract

Recently Seely presented much data demonstrating the flexibility of usage of mîn in the Old Testament. Overlooked was the rarity of occurrences of the word, all occurring in the same syntactical combination which can be understood as ‘of every kind, in all their variety’. The focus is not on biological reproduction but diversity and comprehensiveness.

Keywords

Genesis, creationism, theistic evolution, ethno-biology, taxonomy
John W. OlleyApril1999111Free to view
Book reviewThe Cambridge History of Seventeenth Century PhilosophyDaniel Garber and Michael Ayers (eds) (Charles Webster)April1999111Free to view
Book reviewBetween Copernicus and Galileo: Christopher Clavius and the Collapse of Ptolemaic CosmologyJames M. Lattis (John Hedley Brooke)April1999111Free to view
Book reviewScience Meets Faith: Theology and Science in ConversationFraser Watts (ed.) (Christopher Southgate)April1999111Free to view
Book reviewReligion and Science: Historical and Contemporary IssuesIan Barbour (Adrian Brown)April1999111Free to view
Book reviewSpiritual Evolution: Scientists Discuss Their BeliefsJ.M. Templeton & K.S. Giniger (eds.) (Ernest C. Lucas)April1999111Free to view
Book reviewVital Dust: Life as a Cosmic ImperativeChristian de Duve (John A. Bryant)April1999111Free to view
Book reviewThe Biological UniverseSteven J. Dick (John A. Bryant)April1999111Free to view
Book reviewNature’s Imagination: The Frontiers of Scientific VisionJohn Cornwell (editor) (Jonathan Doye)April1999111Free to view
Book reviewThe Cambridge Companion to JungPolly Eisendrath-Young and Terence Dawson (eds) (Dr. Sara B. Savage) April1999111Free to view
Book reviewEvolving the Mind: On the Nature of Matter and the Origin of ConsciousnessA.G. Cairns-Smith (Fraser Watts)April1999111Free to view
Book reviewAnimals on the Agenda: Questions about Animals for Theology and EthicsAndrew Linzey and Dorothy Yamamoto (eds) (Brent Waters)April1999111Free to view
Book reviewBeyond ScienceJohn Polkinghorne (Denis Alexander)April1999111Free to view
Book reviewMetaphysics and the Origin of SpeciesMichael T. Ghiselin (Arthur Jones)April1999111Free to view
Book reviewPrinciples of GeologyCharles Lyell (Michael Roberts)April1999111Free to view
Book reviewThe Faber Book of ScienceJohn Carey (editor) (William K. Kay)April1999111Free to view
Book reviewImproving Nature? The Science and Ethics of Genetic EngineeringMichael J. Reiss and Roger Straughan (R.J. Berry)April1999111Free to view
Book reviewFaith and UncertaintyJohn Habgood (Peter Fulljames)April1999111Free to view
Book reviewA Walk Through Time – From Stardust to Us: The Evolution of Life on EarthSidney Liebes, Elisabet Sahtouris and Brian Swimme (Hazel C. Lucas)April1999111Free to view
Book reviewScientists as Theologians: A Comparison of the Writings of Ian Barbour, Arthur Peacocke and John PolkinghorneJohn Polkinghorne (John Jefferson Davis)April1999111Free to view
Book reviewFrankenstein’s Footsteps. Science, Genetics and Popular CultureJon Turney (John Eldridge)April1999111Free to view
Book reviewUnnatural Enemies: An Introduction to Science and ChristianityKirsten Birkett (Steve Bishop)April1999111Free to view
ArticleEditorial: On taking Both Science and the Bible SeriouslyDenis AlexanderOctober1998102Free to view
ArticleAdam, Anthropology and the Genesis Record

Abstract

Much of the perceived conflict between science and Christian belief is not due to any intrinsic disagreement between these two approaches to truth, but rather to the conflict of emerging science with entrenched interpretations of Scripture. The history of the science/faith interface attests to this fact from the time of Galileo and before. It is important therefore, in interpreting Gen. 1–3, to take into account the findings of contemporary science. This approach should be made, not as an attempt to conform science to the Bible or the Bible to science, but rather as one in which science serves along with history, culture and language as one of many inputs into the interpretative exercise. The important message of Genesis and of the role of Scripture as the Word of God is not compromised by such an approach, but rather enhanced and its relevance in the contemporary scene emphasised. In this paper an attempt is made to assess the findings of modern anthropology in relation to the interpretation of the Genesis account of Adam and the Fall. It is maintained that neither a strictly literal interpretation, nor one which identifies an individual historic Adam with the Biblical Adam, is consistent with the findings of cultural and physical anthropology. On the other hand, it is proposed that an interpretation suggesting a generic (representative humanity) Adam and a gradual emergence of both humanity made in the `image of God’ and of the Fall is consistent with a proper interpretation of Genesis chapters 1–3. It is proposed that the essential message of Genesis 1–3 with its theology of humanity created in the image of God and embracing the development of a sinful human nature needing redemption is not compromised by this reading.

Keywords

Adam, Fall, Anthropology, Genesis, Biblical Interpretation
Allan J. DayOctober1998102Free to view
ArticleHuman Nature: Unitary or Fragmented?

Abstract

Our humanity, as the Holy Spirit speaks of it to all cultures through the writers of Scripture, is that of material beings who live in community and can relate to God. A human person’s life (the soul) is somatic (the body), a set of individual achievements and viewpoints (the mind and heart), which can be evaluated as a whole (the flesh and the spirit). This biblical conception of a unitary human nature conflicts with both clerically fostered ideas that the dead have temporal consciousness and also the rationalistic dualism of `the ghost in the machine’. On the other hand, this concept of a psychobiosocial unity in human life is consistent with scientific research into the neural bases and the cultural origins of the conscious and unconscious mental processes involved in our actions, thoughts and feelings.

Keywords

human nature, psychological science, life, mind, soul, spirit, body, flesh
David BoothOctober1998102Free to view
ArticleScience, Christianity and the Post-Modern Agenda

Abstract

Modernists equated rationality with science and thus supposed that religious belief was irrational. Post-modernists show a welcome openness to non-scientific belief systems, yet tend to endorse relativism. This article examines the transition from modernist to post-modernist philosophy of science with particular reference to the work of Thomas Kuhn. The manner in which Kuhn’s work undermines the rationality of science and tends towards an objectionable relativism will be examined. However, Kuhn’s work can be re-interpreted within a broadly realist framework, which sees paradigm choice as a rational procedure, and scientific progress as leading towards an objectively true account of the world. This re-reading of Kuhn yields a partially post-modern philosophy of science, which succeeds in retaining post-modernism’s openness towards religion, without lapsing into a denial of the possibility of objective truth.

Keywords

Post-modernism, rationality, relativism, realism, paradigm, incommensurability
John TaylorOctober1998102Free to view
Correspondence(Letter)J. Emyr MacdonaldOctober1998102Free to view
Correspondence(Letter)Michael B. RobertsOctober1998102Free to view
Book reviewRevelation and the Environment: AD 95–1995Sarah Hobson & Jane Lubchenko (editors) (Celia Deane-Drummond)October1998102Free to view
Book reviewThe Web of Life: A new Synthesis of Mind and MatterFritjof Capra (Ernest C. Lucas)October1998102Free to view
Book reviewGood God: Green theology and the value of creationJonathan Clatworthy (Ron Elsdon)October1998102Free to view
Book reviewThe Scientific RevolutionSteven Shapin (Charles Webster)October1998102Free to view
Book reviewTheology of Creation in an Evolutionary WorldKarl Schmitz-Moormann, with James F. Salmon S.J.(Christopher Southgate)October1998102Free to view
Book reviewGod, Faith and the New MillenniumKeith Ward (John Polkinghorne)October1998102Free to view
Book reviewReconciling Theology and Science: A Radical Reformation PerspectiveNancey Murphy (Michael Peat)October1998102Free to view
Book reviewThe Psychology of Religious Behaviour, Belief and ExperienceBenjamin Beit-Hallahmi and Michael Argyle (Rosamund Bourke)October1998102Free to view
Book reviewThe Humanizing Brain: Where Religion and Neuroscience MeetJames B. Ashbrook and Carol Rausch Albright (Fraser Watts)October1998102Free to view
Book reviewRobert Boyle: A Study in Science and Christian BeliefReijer Hooykaas (Edward B. Davis)October1998102Free to view
Book reviewBelief in God in an Age of ScienceJohn Polkinghorne (William K. Kay)October1998102Free to view
ArticleESSAY REVIEW The Crucible of Creation: the Burgess Shale and the Rise of Animals by Simon Conway MorrisRobert S. WhiteOctober1998102Free to view
ArticleEditorial: Of Christians and Information TechnologyLawrence OsbornApril1998101Free to view
ArticleInfanticide: An Ethical Battlefield

Abstract

This article examines the historic and modern contexts of infanticide and its links with passive and active euthanasia, and with abortion. Current debate on the treatment or non-treatment of imperilled newborns, most commonly those suffering from Down’s syndrome or spina bifida, is the result of shifts in ethical perception brought about in part by technological advance and also by the focus of many in modern society on good health and normality. These have led to an ethic of perfectionism whereby infants are viewed as the property of parents, to be disposed of if they so choose. Arguments in favour of infanticide and those opposing it are presented and discussed. The Christian perspective proposed explores our valuation of human infants and the care and protection to be afforded to disabled newborns. Based on the belief that all are created in the image of God, it is suggested that all human beings should be valued irrespective of disease or disability. From this basis, the withholding or withdrawal of treatment may only be justified where a case can be made that the best interests of the debilitated infant will not be served by its continued provision.

Keywords

Infant, infanticide, imperilled newborns, Down’s syndrome, spina bifida
D Gareth JonesApril1998101Free to view
ArticleCriteria of Success in Science and Theology

Abstract

In this paper I asses the merits of the strategy by which theologians explicitly borrow criteria from the sciences for justification of religious belief-systems. In particular, I examine the standards according to which scientists affirm the reality of those unobservable, explanatory components of their best theories . A survey of the most promising arguments for scientific realism reveals those standards: a parallel survey of explanatory theology provides an analysis of the claim that relevantly similar considerations support the belief that God actually exists. Of particular interest is the claim that explanatory theology fails because it lacks the predictive resources to support a realist interpretation. In the end, I offer a favourable assessment of the prospects for an argument for the existence of God based on the explanatory adequacy of specifically Christian beliefs.

Keywords

Scientific explanation, theological explanation, justification of belief, realism
Robert O’ConnorApril1998101Free to view
ArticleResponse to O’Connor: Inference to the Best Explanation and Predictive PowerPhil DoweApril1998101Free to view
ArticleWilliam Paley Confronts Erasmus Darwin: Natural Theology and Evolutionism in the Eighteenth Century

Abstract

This article examines the relations between natural theology and evolutionary theories in the eighteenth century, and in particular William Paley’s response to the Zoonomia of Erasmus Darwin. It discusses the status of the argument from design, and suggests that in eighteenth century Britain the argument became less prominent after about 1730 when the threat of atheism, as distinct from deism, was felt to have receded. Paley should be seen as successfully reviving and updating natural theology to counter new philosophical and scientific threats, and in particular Erasmus Darwin’s evolutionary theory, the first to give a systematic account of biological adaptation. In his response Paley showed the inadequacy of any theory that explains adaptation by the active exertions of organisms. The article concludes with suggestions for further study of Paley’s influence in the nineteenth century.

Keywords

Natural theology, evolution, argument from design, William Paley, Erasmus Darwin
David BurbridgeApril1998101Free to view
ArticleA Berkeleyan Approach to the Problem of Induction

Abstract

The problem of induction has plagued scientists and philosophers of science ever since Hume’s famous critique. Specifically, it seems that any attempt to reason from observed phenomena to future or otherwise unobserved events is destined to beg the question. Traditional attempts to solve the problem seem inadequate to avoid circularity. In this essay, I elucidate an approach to the problem of induction which might have been taken by one of Hume’s immediate predecessors, George Berkeley. I show how a Berkeleyan model offers a theistic justification of inferences about unobserved events. First, the existence of a benevolent God is inferred from the numerous helpful regularities in nature. Second, based on the trustworthiness of God, it is concluded that nature is uniform (that the future will resemble the past). In addition to explaining the Berkeleyan model, a variety of implications about the nature and practice of science are noted. The paper concludes with a discussion of objections to a Berkeleyan approach.

Keywords

Berkeley, Hume, induction, laws of nature, uniformity of nature
James SpiegelApril1998101Free to view
Book reviewPlan and Purpose in NatureGeorge C Williams (Arthur Jones)April1998101Free to view
Book reviewSurvival and Religion: Biological Evolution and Cultural ChangeEric Jones and Vernon Reynolds (editors) (Lawrence Osborn)April1998101Free to view
Book reviewReality through the Looking-Glass: Science and awareness in the postmodern worldC J S Clarke (Revd Nicholas Moir)April1998101Free to view
Book reviewHow Brains Think—Intelligence then and nowWilliam H Calvin (Diana Briggs)April1998101Free to view
Book reviewWhat is Life? The Next Fifty Years: Speculations on the Future of BiologyMichael P. Murphy and Luke A. J. O’Neill (editors) (J. N. (Tim) Hawthorne)April1998101Free to view
Book reviewGod and the Biologist: Faith at the Frontiers of ScienceR. J. Berry (John A Bryant)April1998101Free to view
Book reviewEnergy and EnvironmentPeter E Hodgson (Sir John Houghton)April1998101Free to view
Book reviewThe Prehistory of the MindS. Mithen (Mike Alsford)April1998101Free to view
Book reviewReligion and CreationKeith Ward (Graham McFarlane)April1998101Free to view
Book reviewThe Fabric of RealityDavid Deutsch (John Polkinghorne)April1998101Free to view
Book reviewBut is it Science?: The Philosophical Question in the Creation/Evolution ControversyMichael Ruse (Ed) (Oliver Barclay)April1998101Free to view
Book reviewSuper, Natural Christians: How we should love natureSallie McFague (Ron Elsdon)April1998101Free to view
Book reviewReligion and the Order of NatureSeeyed Hossein Nasr (Celia Deane-Drummond)April1998101Free to view
Book reviewThe Earth Under Threat: A Christian PerspectiveGhillean Prance (Steve Bishop)April1998101Free to view
Book reviewMonad to Man; The Concept of Progress in Evolutionary BiologyMichael. J Ruse (Michael Roberts)April1998101Free to view
Book reviewPythagoras’ Trousers: God, physics and the gender warsMargaret Wertheim (Revd Nicholas Moir)April1998101Free to view
Book reviewReinventing DarwinNiles Eldredge (Michael Roberts)April1998101Free to view
Book reviewRiver Out of Eden & Climbing Mount ImprobableRichard Dawkins (Mike Poole)April1998101Free to view
Book reviewTesting DarwinismPhillip E. Johnson (Paul Helm)April1998101Free to view
Book reviewUncertain Knowledge: An image of science for a changing worldR G A Dolby (Lawrence Osborn)April1998101Free to view
Book reviewIn Search of Personality: Christianity and Modern PsychologyPeter Morea (Dr. Robert Innes)April1998101Free to view
Book reviewImpossibility: Thoughts About the Unknowable, the Undoable and the UnthinkableJohn D. Barrow (John Polkinghorne)April1998101Free to view
Book reviewGod And The ScientistsMichael Poole el al (Adrian Brown)April1998101Free to view
Book reviewSoul SearchingNicholas Humphrey (Andrew Briggs)April1998101Free to view
Book reviewHuman Nature at the Millennium. Reflections on the Integration of Psychology and ChristianityMalcolm A. Jeeves (D. A. Booth)April1998101Free to view
ArticleGuest Editorial: On Book ReviewsColin A. RussellOctober199792Free to view
ArticleChristians and the Environment: Our Opportunities and Responsibilities

Abstract

The following is the text of the Drawbridge Lecture given on 1st October 1996 in St. Margaret’s Church, Westminster, London, for the Christian Evidence Society.
John HoughtonOctober199792Free to view
ArticleDarwin’s Doubts About Design—the Darwin-Gray Correspondence of 1860

Abstract

Darwin is credited with overturning Paley’s ideas of design. However, Darwin’s prob!ems with design are more complex, and are often misunderstood by neither grasping Paley’s ideas of design, nor those of his successors, who were beginning to replace arguments leading from design to God by arguments to design from God. Darwin’s doubts about design arose from three main sources: first, he used the argument from design, in contrast to Gray’s argument to design; second, the issue of chance and determinism; and, third, his doubts that a ‘Beneficent God’ could design a world with so much pain. The correspondence between Darwin and Gray and Gray’s articles on Darwin show how Gray sought to be Darwin’s retriever. Hodge’s challenge in What is Darwinism? was centred on chance, and as natural selection depended on chance Darwinism had to be atheistic, even if Darwin himself was not. In conclusion Darwin’s doubts about design stemmed directly from his doubts about God, and especially suffering.

Keywords

Design, teleology, Darwin, Paley, Gray, Hodge
Michael B. RobertsOctober199792Free to view
ArticleQuantum Indeterminacy and the Omniscience of God

Abstract

Does God know the precise moment that an individual radium atom will decay? This article examines the `limited omniscience’ proposal of Arthur Peacocke, who argues that God has voluntarily limited his knowledge of events in the quantum world, to make genuine contingency possible. The author presents as an alternative to the Peacocke proposal a revisionist version of classical Christian theism, in which the divine knowledge is unlimited, but which recognizes genuine contingency in nature.

Keywords

quantum mechanics; indeterminacy; God; omniscience
John J. DavisOctober199792Free to view
ArticleResponse to DavisArthur PeacockeOctober199792Free to view
DebateIn Search of a More Focussed Response: a Reply to Howard J. Van TillPhilip P. DuceOctober199792Free to view
DebateResponse to DuceHoward J. Van TillOctober199792Free to view
Correspondence(Letter)Chris ClarkeOctober199792Free to view
Correspondence(Letter)R. J. BerryOctober199792Free to view
Book reviewThe Flamingo’s SmileStephen Jay Gould (R.S. Luhman)October199792Free to view
Book reviewAtoms and Icons: A Discussion of the Relationships Between Science and TheologyMichael Fuller (David Atkinson)October199792Free to view
Book reviewGaia and God: An Ecofeminist Theology of Earth HealingRosemary Radford Ruether (Lawrence Osborn)October199792Free to view
Book reviewThe Fire in the EquationsKitty Ferguson(D. A. Wilkinson)October199792Free to view
Book reviewPrisons of Light—Black HolesKitty Ferguson (Robert Boyd)October199792Free to view
Book review`Bioethics for the People by the People’Darryl R. J. Macer and others (David Hardy)October199792Free to view
Book reviewThe Psychology of Interpersonal BehaviourMichael Argyle (Michael Nazir-Ali)October199792Free to view
Book reviewParadigms and Barriers. How Habits of Mind Govern Scientific BeliefsHoward Margolis (M. Alsford)October199792Free to view
Book reviewLaws of Nature (Cambridge Studies in Philosophy)John W. Carroll (Steve Bishop)October199792Free to view
Book reviewEcotheology July 1996, Issue 1Mary Grey (editor) (Steve Bishop)October199792Free to view
Book reviewEvolving the MindA. G. Cairns-Smith (Diana Briggs)October199792Free to view
Book reviewReluctant Heroine. The life and work of Hélène DuhemStanley L. Jaki (R. N. D. Martin)October199792Free to view
Book reviewGalileo, Courtier: The Practice of Science in the Culture of AbsolutismMario Biagioli (Revd Nicholas Moir)October199792Free to view
Book reviewEdward Frankland: Chemistry, Controversy and Conspiracy in Victorian EnglandColin Russell (John Nicholson)October199792Free to view
Book reviewReligion, Science and NaturalismWillem B. Drees (Denis Alexander)October199792Free to view
Book reviewThe Memory of WaterMichel Schiff (Revd. Dr. Ernest C. Lucas)October199792Free to view
Book reviewScience and Wonders: conversations about science and beliefRussell Stannard (William K Kay)October199792Free to view
Book reviewThe Large, the Small and the Human MindRoger Penrose (John Polkinghorne)October199792Free to view
Book reviewFrom a Biological Point of View: Essays in Evolutionary PhilosophyElliott Sober (Arthur Jones)October199792Free to view
Book reviewThe Lives to Come. The genetic revolution and human possibilitiesPhilip Kitcher (Caroline Berry)October199792Free to view
Book reviewThe Troubled Helix: Social and Psychological Implications of the New Human Genetics.Theresa Marteau & Martin Richards (editors) (John A Bryant)October199792Free to view
Book reviewWhat is Intelligence?J. Khalfa (editor) (P. C. Knox)October199792Free to view
Book reviewImpossible Minds. My neurons, my consciousnessIgor Aleksander (D. A. Booth)October199792Free to view
Book reviewThe Radiance of Being. Complexity, Chaos and the Evolution of ConsciousnessAllan Coombs (A. P. Stone)October199792Free to view
Book reviewGod and the Mind MachineJohn Puddefoot (Rosamund Bourke)October199792Free to view
Book reviewThe Psychology of Religion: Classic and contemporaryDavid M. Wulff (Tim Marks)October199792Free to view
Book reviewGaia in Action: Science of the Living Earth.Peter Bunyard (editor) (Celia Deane-Drummond)October199792Free to view
Book reviewDarwin’s Black BoxMichael J. Behe (Michael Roberts)October199792Free to view
ArticleEditorial: Science, Religion and the Media(not given)April199791Free to view
ArticleChance and Providence

Abstract

This paper considers an area of putative conflict between science and religion, namely, the Chance Worldview. It is thought by many that the existence of chance, allegedly proved in quantum physics, refutes the classical theist doctrine of providence. In this paper I consider the implications of Bell’s Theorem for the relation between divine and natural causation.

Keywords

chance; providence; divine causation; quantum mechanics
Phil DoweApril199791Free to view
ArticleThe Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence and the Christian Doctrine of Redemption

Abstract

The history of discussion in the ancient, medieval, and modern periods of the theological implications of the possible existence of extraterrestrial beings is reviewed and related to modern scientific interests. In the contructive section of the paper it is argued that the Pauline “cosmic Christology” of Colossians 1:15–20 makes it unnecessary to postulate additional incarnations as atonements in order to conceptualize the redemption of any extraterrestial beings that might exist elsewhere in the universe. This conclusion is consistent with earlier opinions expressed by Thomas Aquinas and Thomas Chalmers, but is based on a more developed exegetical argument from biblical theology.

Keywords

Extraterrestrials; Christology; incarnation; redemption
John J. DavisApril199791Free to view
ArticleThe Internet: Beyond Ethics?

Abstract

The Internet throws up a number of serious ethical issues at just the time when ethical resources are few and far between. Various reasons for this state of affairs are discussed, several of which show a continuity rather than a disjuncture with other communication and information technologies (CITs). These include exaggerating the ‘newness’ of the Internet, and forgetting that technology is a human activity, always amenable to ethical critique. It is suggested that the contribution of CITs to postmodern (un)realities puts the Internet in a peculiar position. While modern rationalities, including ethical ones, may be in doubt, by bringing users into more indirect relationships, the Internet also sharpens the question of ‘otherness’ and thus points the way to a relevant and potentially fruitful category for an Internet ethics.

Keywords

Internet, communication and information technologies, ethics, morality, post/modern, rationality
David LyonApril199791Free to view
ArticleThe Meaning of Man, ‘Kind’

Abstract

In order to claim biblical support for their theories, both theistic evolutionists and creationists have distorted the meaning of the Hebrew word man, ‘kind.’ Although man can refer to modern taxonomic levels from phylum to species, ethno-biological studies indicate that the meaning of man depends in part on the type and size of animal being considered. With reference to insects and ‘fish’, man may correspond in rare cases with phylum or class, but more often with order, usually with family, sometimes with genus or species. For mammals and birds, and probably for reptiles and amphibians, biblical, historical and anthropological studies indicate that man although occasionally referring to order or family, usually refers to genus or species. These findings indicate that neither theistic evolution nor creationism can be closely correlated with the biblical text.

Keywords

Genesis, creationism, theistic evolution, ethno-biology, taxonomy
Paul H. SeelyApril199791Free to view
ArticleAn Engineering Approach to Reductionism

Abstract

Various aspects of reductionism are considered. It is shown that the uses of reductionism lie in the separation of variables, which allows the construction of models required to answer specific questions. It is shown that a particular object or process can be modelled in many ways, so that no model is coextensive with that object or process. In spite of this limitation the use of reductionist models is wonderfully useful.

Keywords

reductionism, modelling, knowledge
P. HammondApril199791Free to view
DebateA Response to R. J. Berry on ‘The Virgin Birth of Christ’Peter AddinallApril199791Free to view
DebateA Response to AddinallR. J. BerryApril199791Free to view
DebateIndeterminacy, Time and the FuturePeter J. BusseyApril199791Free to view
CorrespondenceGeorge L. MurphyGeorge L. MurphyApril199791Free to view
CorrespondenceK. Helmut ReichK. Helmut ReichApril199791Free to view
Book reviewShadows of the MindRoger Penrose (P. C. Knox)April199791Free to view
Book reviewThe Conscious Mind. In search of a fundamental theoryDavid J. Chalmers (D. A. Booth)April199791Free to view
Book reviewGod, Chance and NecessityKeith Ward (Dr Kay)April199791Free to view
Book reviewPutting It All Together: Seven Patterns for Relating Science and the Christian FaithRichard H. Bube (J. C. Polkinghorne)April199791Free to view
Book reviewSigns of Life: The Language and Meanings of DNARobert Pollack (R. B. Heap)April199791Free to view
Book reviewIn the BloodSteve Jones (Caroline Berry)April199791Free to view
ArticleEditorialD. Gareth JonesOctober199682Free to view
ArticleThe Virgin Birth of Christ

Abstract

The Bible describes Jesus as being born to Mary ‘by the power of the Holy Spirit’, implying (although not stating) that the Spirit was his father. This has been rejected by some as an unnecessary doctrine, separating Jesus from the rest of humankind and dependent on an intrinsically incredible miracle. Such an objection is wrong: some form of distinctiveness like a Virgin Birth is theologically required if Jesus is to be divine as well as human, and there are several mechanisms by which the virgin birth of a male child could occur. The reason for recognising these is not to suggest that God necessarily used any of them, but simply to point out that apparent scientific difficulty should not determine the acceptability of a theological concept.

Keywords

virgin birth; miracle; parthenogenesis; chromosome; gene; Virgin Mary; incarnation
R. J. BerryOctober199682Free to view
ArticleSpacetime and Revelation

Abstract

This paper explores two contrasting understandings of time in relation to theology and contemporary physics. The process theory (or ‘common sense’ view) of time is widely used by theologians but has certain theological limitations. A rival stasis theory of time is suggested by certain interpreters of relativity theory. The paper highlights affinities between the latter theory and classical conceptions of eternity. A concluding section suggests that a more consistent use of trinitarian theology may permit a revised form of the process theory that avoids the limitations cited earlier.

Keywords

time, spacetime, process, change, relativity theory, block cosmos, eternity, Trinity
Lawrence OsbornOctober199682Free to view
Article‘Speak to the Earth and It Will Teach You’

Abstract

In the garden of Eden, the monarchs were Adam and Eve: Hebrew monarchs were shepherds, and the task of the shepherd monarchs was to guard and protect their flock. Humanity has been given the skills and the challenge to set a measuring line to the Earth, to draw out Leviathan with a hook, even to reach the Pleiades if we can: but with this ability we now also face the challenge and responsibility to care for the garden. The geological record shows that catastrophes and sudden changes have taken place in the past, and illustrates the likely consequences of humanity’s present behaviour, while also giving us the evidence to understand the complexity of our planet. Creation groans: our actions across the planet are now on a scale that can radically change the operation of the whole biosphere in a way that is comparable to the sudden past catastrophes. Simultaneously, we are discovering new scientific knowledge, and growing in our understanding of the natural world. This is giving us the ability to manage the Earth, just as our unplanned actions impose change on the planet. Managing the atmosphere, determining climate and environment, sustaining the biosphere, are all tasks we can no longer avoid, as we already control the planet. Creation is not to be worshipped—creation spirituality is dangerous doctrine—but it is to be respected, for in understanding and maintaining the biosphere, humanity itself grows as an heir, jointly with the rest of life, of Noah’s covenant.

Keywords

environment; Eden; creation; Gaia; extinction; ecosystem
Euan G. NisbetOctober199682Free to view
DebateComplementarity in PerspectivePhilip P. DuceOctober199682Free to view
DebateResponse to DuceHoward J. Van TillOctober199682Free to view
CorrespondenceJohn PolkinghorneJohn PolkinghorneOctober199682Free to view
ArticleErrataErrataOctober199682Free to view
Book reviewIs There a God?Richard Swinburne (J. C. Polkinghorne)October199682Free to view
Book reviewThe Physics of Immortality: modern cosmology, God, and the resurrection of the deadFrank Tipler (E. J. Squires)October199682Free to view
Book reviewSuperforcePaul Davies (G. A. D. Briggs)October199682Free to view
Book reviewThe Day before Yesterday: Five Million Years of Human HistoryColin Tudge (Gordon E. Barnes)October199682Free to view
Book reviewThe Promise of Nature: Ecology and Cosmic PurposeJohn F. Haught (Lawrence Osborn)October199682Free to view
Book reviewAlternative Medicine: Helpful or Harmful?Robina Coker (Caroline Berry)October199682Free to view
Book reviewThe Grammar of Consciousness. An exploration of Tacit KnowingEdward Moss (D. A. Booth)October199682Free to view
Book reviewDarwin’s Dangerous Idea—Evolution and the Meanings of LifeDaniel C. Dennett (Denis Alexander)October199682Free to view
Book reviewThe Self-Aware Universe: How Consciousness Creates the Material WorldAmit Goswami (Lawrence Osborn)October199682Free to view
Book reviewThe Earth, Humanity and GodColin A. Russell (P. C. Knox)October199682Free to view
Book reviewBeliefs and Values in Science EducationMichael Poole (R. S. Luhman)October199682Free to view
Book reviewThe Sea of FaithDon Cupitt (M. B. Roberts)October199682Free to view
Book reviewAfter AllDon Cupitt (M. B. Roberts)October199682Free to view
Book reviewEternity and Time’s FlowRobert Cummings Neville (John A. Mills)October199682Free to view
Book reviewNewtonI. B. Cohen and R. S. Westfall (G. A. D. Briggs)October199682Free to view
ArticleIndex to Vols 7 & 8Index to Vols 7 & 8October199682Free to view
ArticleEditorial: The Problem of Theological IlliteracyDenis AlexanderApril199681Free to view
ArticleEthical Issues in the Application of Medical Technology to Paediatric Intensive Care: Two Views of the Newborn

Abstract

Recent advances in medical technology have led to a marked improvement in the chances of survival of sick or preterm infants, thereby stimulating renewed ethical debate on the status of the newborn. Two contradictory attitudes to the medical care of preterm or congenitally malformed newborn infants can be discerned in our pluralistic society. The two attitudes have their historical roots in the classical Graeco-Roman and Judaeo-Christian ethical traditions respectively. The former views newborn infants as of potential value only whereas the latter emphasises the intrinsic worth and dignity of the individual made in God’s image. Recent secular philosophical reflection has provided a rationale for infanticide of the sick or abnormal newborn. A Christian approach to the care of the newborn prohibits intentional killing yet may encompass the withdrawal of treatment that is inappropriate or unduly burdensome. Medical care should be based upon respect for the value of the individual, protection of the defenceless from abuse or exploitation, and wise stewardship of limited health-care resources.

Keywords

Newborn, Human, Intensive Care, Ethics, Infanticide, Graeco Roman. Judaeo-Christian
John S. WyattApril199681Free to view
ArticleBasil, Augustine, and the Doctrine of Creation’s Functional Integrity

Abstract

Contemporary scientific theorising regarding the formative history of the universe (including its multifarious forms of life) presumes that the developmental economy of the physical world is gapless—that is, that material systems lack none of the form-producing capacities needed to actualize, in the course of time, all of the physical structures and biotic forms that have ever appeared. Hence, divine acts of special creation in time, although not proscribed, are not incorporated into scientific theories regarding the world’s formative history. Some Christian critics of modern science have argued that this approach, by its appearing to transfer the agency of creative action from God to matter itself, constitutes an abandonment of the historic Christian doctrine of creation and an apologetic capitulation to philosophical Naturalism. In this paper we will examine this verdict in the light of works by St. Basil and St. Augustine and find it to be contrary to early Christian thought regarding the character of the created world. These patristic writers re-focus our attention on what may be called ‘the doctrine of Creation’s functional integrity’.

Keywords

gaps, special creation, evolving creation, functional integrity, philosophical naturalism. Basil, Augustine
Howard J. Van Till April199681Free to view
ArticleTransgenesis in Animal Systems: A View from Within

Abstract

The introduction of ‘foreign’ or altered genes into animals arouses both scientific and public concern. So too does any extension of this practice to human beings at the somatic (tissue) level, let alone interference in the human germ-line (genetic material passed on to future generations). The range of possible genetic modifications, both those in progress and those likely in the near future, is so vast as to make a uniform Christian response untenable. As with other technologies, there are both laudable and dubious uses for genetic engineering in animal systems; it is neither an unmixed blessing nor an unmitigated curse. It is argued that Christians should engage with these issues on a case-by-case basis, giving due weight to the possible risks and concomitant suffering for the animals used, but basing our ultimate approval or disapproval on the congruence of means and aims with those evinced by Jesus in his ministry of healing, teaching and reconciliation.

Keywords

Transgenic animals, gene therapy, telos, genetic engineering, oncomouse, targeted mutagenesis, animal experiments, Christian perspective
David I. de PomeraiApril199681Free to view
Correspondence(Letter)Dr Stephen LloydApril199681Free to view
CorrespondenceMichael Poole repliesMichael PooleApril199681Free to view
Correspondence(Letter)Dr T. J. ReddishApril199681Free to view
Book reviewDoing away with God? Creation and the Big BangRussell Stannard (Lawrence Osborn)April199681Free to view
Book reviewDavid Bohm’s World–New Physics and New ReligionKevin J. Sharpe (Euan Squires)April199681Free to view
Book reviewTechnology at the Crossroads: The Story of the Society, Religion and Technology ProjectRonald Ferguson (Steve Bishop)April199681Free to view
Book reviewThe Human Genome Project: Deciphering the Blueprint of HeredityNecia Grant Cooper (Ed) (J. A. Bryant) April199681Free to view
Book reviewThe Life and Death of Charles DarwinL. R. Croft (V. Paul Marston) April199681Free to view
Book reviewBright Air, Brilliant Fire: On the Matter of the MindGerald M. Edelman (D. A. Booth) April199681Free to view
Book reviewThe Biblical FloodDavis A. Young (Stephen Walley)April199681Free to view
Book reviewIs God a Virus? Genes, Culture and Religion (The Gresham Lectures, 1992-3)John Bowker (D. R. Alexander)April199681Free to view
Book reviewThe Collapse of ChaosJack Cohen and Ian Stewart (G. A. D. Briggs) April199681Free to view
Book reviewHow Things Are–A Science Tool-kit for the MindJohn Brockman & Katinka Matson (Eds) (K. Freeman)April199681Free to view
Book reviewThe Search for God–Can Science Help?John Houghton (Brian Ford) April199681Free to view
Book reviewThe Left Hand of Creation: The Origin and Evolution of the Expanding UniverseJohn D. Barrow and Joseph Silk (Robert Boyd) April199681Free to view
Book reviewAbout Time: Einstein’s Unfinished RevolutionPaul Davies (John Polkinghorne) April199681Free to view
Book reviewThe Question Is . . . ?Russell Stannard (John Bausor)April199681Free to view
Book reviewHeisenberg’s War: The Secret History of the German BombThomas Powers (John Polkinghorne)April199681Free to view
Book reviewThe Quark and the JaguarMurray Gell-Mann (E. J. Squires)April199681Free to view
Book reviewSeven Experiments That Could Change the World: A Do-It-Yourself Guide to Revolutionary ScienceRupert Sheldrake (Lawrence Osborn)April199681Free to view
Book reviewThe Runaway BrainC. Wills (Alun Morinan) April199681Free to view
Book reviewVestiges of the Natural History of Creation and other Evolutionary WritingsRobert Chambers (Ed J. Secord) (M. B. Roberts)April199681Free to view
Book reviewThe Impact of Evolutionary Theory; A Christian ViewRussell Maatman (M. B. Roberts)April199681Free to view
Book reviewEver Since DarwinStephen Jay Gould (William K. Kay)April199681Free to view
Book reviewA Passion for Plants: from the rainforests of Brazil to Kew GardensClive Langmead (F. Nigel Hepper)April199681Free to view
Book reviewEthics, Religion and BiodiversityL. S. Hamilton (ed.) (Peter D. Moore) April199681Free to view
Book reviewEvolution Extended: Biological Debates on the Meaning of LifeConnie Barlow (ed.) (Oliver Barclay)April199681Free to view
Book reviewThe Periodic KingdomPeter Atkins (A.B. Robins)April199681Free to view
Book reviewNature’s NumbersIan Stewart (A.B. Robins)April199681Free to view
ArticleEditorialSam BerryOctober199572Free to view
ArticleA Response to PolkinghorneArthur PeacockeOctober199572Free to view
ArticleCreatio Continua and Divine Action

Abstract

The notion of continuous creation requires for its validity a concept of God’s continuing interaction with the world. The thinking of Arthur Peacocke on these issues is surveyed. The act of creation involves a divine kenosis, in which agency is shared with creation itself. The unpredictability of physical process is interpreted as Indicating an openness of cosmic history, in which God acts through an input of information. This interpretation requires some form of argument from critical realism. Peacocke’s ideas are subjected to a critical discussion and comparison with those of other authors. A discussion of anti-reductionism discriminates between weak and strong versions. Peacocke holds to the former but arguments are presented in favour of the latter.

Keywords

Arthur Peacocke, anti-reductionism, chance and necessity, chaos theory, contextualism, creation, critical realism, dissipative systems, divine action, information input, kenosis, mind and brain, panentheism, providence
John PolkinghorneOctober199572Free to view
ArticleContemporary Perspectives on Chance, Providence and Free Will - A critique of some modern authors

Abstract

We discuss the implications of modern science for the doctrine of providence by examining the writings of the late Donald MacKay, Arthur Peacocke, and John PoIkinghome. We summarise their views on the Origin of human freedom, the nature of divine action and the relationship of God to his creation. We endeavour to weigh the scientific merits and biblical compatibility of these views.

Keywords

chaos, chance, complementarity, determinism, divine sovereignty, free will, levels of description, logical indeterminacy, mind, providence, purpose, time
Jonathan Doye Ian Goldby Christina Line Stephen Lloyd Paul Shellard David Tricker October199572Free to view
ArticleGenesis 1-2 and Recent Studies of Ancient Texts

Abstract

This essay surveys recent applications of ancient Near Eastern philology and literary study to the interpretation of the first two chapters of the Bible. It considers the significance of the seven days of creation and the reason for two accounts of creation. It examines a variety of expressions including: formless and empty, Image of God, Sabbath, Adam and Eden. The results of recent comparative research provide a rationale for the structure and organisation of Genesis 1-2 as well as new significance to the meaning and antiquity of many of its key expressions. At the same time the study touches upon some of the wealth of ancient Near Eastern literature available for the interpretation of the Bible.

Keywords

Ancient Near East, Genesis 1-11, Genesis 1-2, Creation, Image of God, Sabbath, Adam, Eden, Enuma Elish
Richard S. HessOctober199572Free to view
ArticleThe Eruption of Santorini and the Date and Historicity of Joseph

Abstract

We suggest that a cataclysmic eruption of Santorini in the 17th century BC was responsible for major famines in Egypt and the surrounding area recorded in Old Testament writings in the account of Joseph, and we give arguments for the historicity of this account. Evidence of climatic disturbances in the northern hemisphere from tree-ring widths and of a huge acidity spike in ice cores from Greenland are consistent with widespread climatic modification at this time. We suggest that the famines occurred during the period of the Hyksos pharaohs of the Fifteenth Dynasty in Egypt, probably during the reign of King Khyan, thus providing a date for this pharaoh, and also for the Old Testament patriarch Joseph. If our arguments are accepted, the eruption of Santorini, for which we take the best date to be 1628 BC, provides an absolute chronological marker for both ancient Egyptian and ancient Hebrew chronology.

Keywords

chronology, dendrochronology, Egypt, famines, Hyksos Dynasty, Israel, Joseph, pharaohs, Santorini, volcanoes
Colin J. Humphreys Robert S. WhiteOctober199572Free to view
ArticleA Response to Tipler’s Omega-Point Theory

Abstract

Frank J. Tipler’s Omega-Point Theory claims to be a purely scientific theory which adequately accounts for the existence of an evolving personal God who possesses traditional divine attributes and in virtue of whom we enjoy free will, personal immortality, the prospect of resurrection from the dead, and the action of the Holy Spirit in our lives. among other things. Here we present a critique of that theory, concentrating on its principal flaws, which are philosophical, not scientific. They include arbitrarily endowing an abstract geometrical construction (the causal boundary)–which may or may not eventually come into existence–with personal and divine characteristics (through a misuse of language), failing to acknowledge the limitations of physics, and making unwarranted assumptions concerning the character and necessity of life in the universe.

Keywords

Tipler, Omega-Point, resurrection, cosmology, information theory
W. R. Stoeger G. F. R. EllisOctober199572Free to view
Correspondence(Letter)John PolkinghorneOctober199572Free to view
Book reviewA Guide to Science and BeliefMichael Poole (Michael Walker)October199572Free to view
Book reviewDesigner UniverseJohn Wright (John Bausor)October199572Free to view
Book reviewIn the Beginning: the birth of the living universeJohn Gribbin (John Bausor) October199572Free to view
Book reviewMind Fields. Reflections on the Science of Mind and BrainMalcolm Jeeves (D. A. Booth)October199572Free to view
Book reviewChristian Doctrine in the Light of Michael Polanyi’s Theory of Personal KnowledgeJoan Crewdson (John Polkinghorne) October199572Free to view
Book reviewThe Darwin LegendJames Moore (V. Paul Marston)October199572Free to view
Book reviewKanzi–The Ape at the Brink of the Human MindSue Savage (Victor Pearce) October199572Free to view
Book reviewThe Origin of the UniverseJohn D. Barrow (Robert BoydOctober199572Free to view
Book reviewThe Last Three MinutesPaul Davies (Robert Boyd) October199572Free to view
Book reviewQuarks, Chaos and Christianity. Questions to Science and ReligionJohn C. Polkinghorne (Oliver Barclay) October199572Free to view
Book reviewThe Genetic RevolutionPatrick Dixon (Ernest Lucas)October199572Free to view
Book reviewEmotion and SpiritNeville Symington (Michael W. Elfred)October199572Free to view
Book reviewHow to think about the Earth: Philosophical and theological models for ecologyStephen R. L. Clark (Lawrence Osborn)October199572Free to view
Book reviewThe Gene Wars. Science, Politics and the Human GenomeRobert Cook-Deegan (V. Kleinwächter)October199572Free to view
Book reviewThe Psychology of Religious KnowingFraser Watts and Mark Williams (Michael W. Elfred)October199572Free to view
Book reviewThe language of the genesSteve Jones (Caroline Berry)October199572Free to view
Book reviewThe Creative Cosmos: A Unified Science of Matter, Life and MindErvin Laszlo (Steve Bishop) October199572Free to view
ArticleGuest Editorial: The Science-Faith Debate: Important New DevelopmentsColin HumphreysApril199571Free to view
ArticleWhat happens when we pray

Abstract

The practice of prayer as presented in Scripture and as experienced by Christians through the centuries presupposes a belief that God knows about, cares about and can take action regarding the matters being prayed about. How does the ‘faith story’ of the events in question relate to the ‘scientific story’ of those events? I explore the analogy of a spiritual dimension to assist in understanding how God works in relation to our prayers and certain problems associated with such an analogy. I then briefly consider further related questions: does God know the future, are there limitations to prayer and can prayer be tested?

Keywords

prayer, George Muller, spiritual dimension, Flatland, models of God, God and time, healing, prayer test, providence, miracles, divine action
John HoughtonApril199571Free to view
ArticleCreation and the Environment

Abstract

Debates about creation and evolution have distracted attention from the proper understanding of the environment as God’s creation, for which we are responsible to God. This has left the way open for a plethora of odd religious ideas, which in turn have raised suspicions about orthodox Christian interpretations of the environment and distracted from the obligations of stewardship laid by God on his people. This essay reviews some of the deficiencies and divergences of creation doctrine, beginning from the implicit teaching of scripture that God created the world ex nihilo, that nature is not divine, and that it has been redeemed by Christ’s work. The consequence of living in God’s image in God’s world is that we are stewards, accountable to God for our creation-care. The working-out of this doctrine is explored in terms of the more important distortions of our relationship to the world (syncretism, New Age teachings, Gaia, creation spirituality, deep ecology) and the weakness of our current perceptions. The conclusion is that traditional teachings about responsible stewardship need to be asserted and emphasized by Christians, and that these form the basis of environmental care for Christian and nonbeliever alike.

Keywords

creation, environment, syncretism, New Age, stewardship, Gaia
R. J. BerryApril199571Free to view
ArticleA Reply to Poole

Abstract

The following comments are in response to an article by Michael Poole entitled ‘A critique of aspects of the philosophy and theology of Richard Dawkins’, Science and Christian Belief (1994) 6, 41-59.
Richard DawkinsApril199571Free to view
ArticleEssay Review: Science and Christian Belief by John PolkinghornePaul HelmApril199571Free to view
ArticleA response to DawkinsMichael PooleApril199571Free to view
Correspondence(Letter)Peter AddinallApril199571Free to view
CorrespondenceReply to Peter AddinallColin HumphreysApril199571Free to view
Book reviewBeyond Brundtland: Green Development in the 1990’sThijs de la Court (Ron Elsdon)April199571Free to view
Book reviewValue Free Science? Purity and Power in Modern KnowledgeRobert N. Proctor (V. Paul Marston)April199571Free to view
Book reviewThe Astonishing Hypothesis. The Scientific Search for the SoulFrancis Crick (D. A. Booth) April199571Free to view
Book reviewNothing But Atoms And Molecules?: Probing the limits of scienceRodney D. Holder (Ernest Lucas)April199571Free to view
Book reviewGod, The Big Bang and Stephen Hawking: An Exploration into OriginsDavid Wilkinson (Oliver Howarth)April199571Free to view
Book reviewComplexity: the emerging science at the edge of order and chaosM. Mitchell Waldrop (David Atkinson)April199571Free to view
Book reviewBlack Holes and Baby Universes and other essaysStephen Hawking (Robert Boyd)April199571Free to view
Book reviewComplexityRoger Lewin (J. Houghton)April199571Free to view
Book review‘The Doctrine of DNA’R. C. Lewontin (Alun Morinan)April199571Free to view
Book reviewRationality & Science: Can Science Explain Everything?Roger Trigg (Denis Alexander)April199571Free to view
Book reviewBiothethics in a Liberal SocietyMax Charlesworth (Caroline Berry)April199571Free to view
Book reviewCreation RevisitedP. W. Atkins (E. Rogers)April199571Free to view
Book reviewThe Science and Theology of InformationC. Wassermann, R. Kirby and B. Rordorff (P. Lendsberg)April199571Free to view
Book reviewThe New GenesisRonald Cole-Turner (R. B. Heap)April199571Free to view
Book reviewThe Golem: what everyone should know about scienceHarry Collins and Trevor Pinch (Ernest C. Lucas)April199571Free to view
Book reviewEternity and Eternal Life. Speculative Theology and Science in DiscourseTibor Horvarth, S. J. (Brother Jacques Arnould)April199571Free to view
Book reviewScience Education for a Pluralist SocietyMichael J. Reiss (Steve Bishop)April199571Free to view
Book reviewOur Place in the CosmosFred Hoyle & Chandra Wickramasinghe (Robert Boyd)April199571Free to view
Book reviewEnvironmental Ethics: Divergence and ConvergenceSusan J. Armstrong and Richard G. Botzler (Steve Bishop)April199571Free to view
Book reviewMan and Creation: Perspectives on Science and TheologyMichael Bauman (ed.) (Oliver Barclay) April199571Free to view
ArticleEditorialDenis AlexanderOctober199462Free to view
ArticleEighteenth Century Evangelical Responses to Science: John Wesley’s Enduring Legacy

Abstract

John Wesley (1703-1791) maintained a lifelong interest in the natural sciences. This was reflected in his reading, interaction with scientists and incorporation of scientific material In his sermons and other writings. He particularly valued the use of science in medicine and in the education of his lay preachers. Wesley’s emphasis on the themes of mankind’s probation and redemption was accompanied by an attempt to describe the physical and biological state of the world as salvation history was being played out. Although criticized for his suspicion of theoretical systems and emphasis on the limits of natural knowledge, he was willing to accept new scientific ideas except where they threatened Christian faith. Succeeding generations would apply his scientific interests to serve diverse agendas.

Keywords

John Wesley, natural theology, natural history, necessity, antivisection, Bonnet, Buffon, electrotherapy, education, Dallinger, chain of being, Arminian Magazine
John W. Haas, Jr. October199462Free to view
ArticleCosmology and Christology

Abstract

We consider here some possible implications of modern scientific cosmology for theological understanding of Christ and his work. In order to do this, We must make the initial decision to view big bang cosmologies within the context of a Christian understanding of God’s relationship with the world. Scientific studies of the very early universe and attempts to explain the origin of space-time and matter, together with reflection on the character of modem physics, suggest a need to focus on the origin of the world’s pattern as an important element of an adequate doctrine of creation. The idea of a preexistent logos, which has encountered some opposition in modem theology, provides one way to express such Ideas. At the same time, the controversial anthropic principles of modern cosmology suggest that the development of human life plays a central role in the universe, and motivate attempts to understand the doctrine of the Incarnation as a theanthropic principle. Significant ideas of modern cosmology are thus correlated with belief in the divine-human Christ through whom and for whom the universe is created.

Keywords

anthropic principles, christology, cosmology, Logos, platonism
George L. Murphy October199462Free to view
ArticleThe Christian Approach in Teaching Science

Abstract

This article was first published by The Tyndale Press in January, 1960. In it Prof. Hooykaas argues that there is a correct Christian secularisation of science which avoids the attempt to extract theology from science or, conversely, the mistaken use of theology to support scientific theories, even though the history of science provides abundant examples illustrating the difficulty of achieving such an aim in practice. At the same time the teaching of science should not degenerate into scientism, the idea that scientific descriptions provide the only valid type of knowledge. Instead teachers of science should remember the liberating influence of Biblical doctrine in stimulating the emergence of modern science and technology and allow this same Biblical perspective to permeate their life and their work.

Keywords

Objectivity, scientism, science education, rationalism, Plato, puritans.
Reijer HooykaasOctober199462Free to view
ArticleObituary: Professor Reijer HooykaasOliver R. BarclayOctober199462Free to view
Book reviewThe Knight’s Move. The Relational Logic of the Spirit in Theology and ScienceJ. E. Loader and W. J. Neidhardt (Mike Alsford)October199462Free to view
Book reviewReplenish the Earth: A History of Organized Religion’s Treatment of Animals and Nature–Including the Bible’s Message of Conservation and Kindness to AnimalsLewis G. Regenstein (Lawrence Osborn)October199462Free to view
Book reviewThe Unnatural Nature of ScienceLewis Wolpert (Oliver Barclay)October199462Free to view
Book reviewThe Character of Physical LawRichard P. Feynman (John Polkinghorne)October199462Free to view
Book reviewOur Genetic Future: The Science and Ethics of Genetic TechnologyBritish Medical Association (BMA) (R. B. Heap)October199462Free to view
Book reviewSteps towards Life–A Perspective on EvolutionManfred Eigen with Ruthild Winkler-Oswatisch (Translated by Paul Woolley) (David M. Taylor)October199462Free to view
Book reviewThe Triumph of the EmbryoLewis Wolpert (Caroline Berry)October199462Free to view
Book reviewThe New Scientist Guide to ChaosNina Hall (Editor) (John Houghton) October199462Free to view
Book reviewThe Diversity of LifeE. O. Wilton (Paul C. Knox) October199462Free to view
Book reviewStephen Hawking: A Life in ScienceMichael White and John Gribbin ((Sir) Robert Boyd) October199462Free to view
Book reviewEthics in an Age of Technology: The Gifford Lectures 1989-1991Ian Barbour (Lawrence Osborn) October199462Free to view
Book reviewThe Facts of LifeRichard Milton (Reg Luhman)October199462Free to view
Book reviewMore Things in Heaven and Earth: God and the ScientistsA. van den Beukel (Peter Landsberg) October199462Free to view
Book reviewThe New Scientist Inside ScienceRichard Fifield (ed.) (John Bausor)October199462Free to view
Book reviewBiblical Faith and Natural Theology (The Gifford Lectures for 1991)James Barr (Steve Bishop)October199462Free to view
Book reviewTheology for a Scientific Age: Being and Becoming–Natural, Divine and HumanArthur R. Peacocke (Lawrence Osborn)October199462Free to view
Book reviewPie in the Sky, Counting, thinking and beingJohn D. Barrow (Robert Boyd)October199462Free to view
Book reviewDreams of a Final TheorySteven Weinberg (Peter Landsberg)October199462Free to view
Book review‘Human Minds’: an ExplorationMargaret Donaldson (P.C. Knox) October199462Free to view
Book reviewChristianity, Wilderness and Wildlife: the original desert solitaireSusan Power Bratton (David Williams)October199462Free to view
Book reviewDarwin on TrialPhillip E. Johnson (Oliver Barclay)October199462Free to view
Book reviewThe Gospel and Contemporary CultureHugh Montefiore (ed.) (Tony Lane)October199462Free to view
ArticleEditorialDenis AlexanderApril199461Free to view
ArticleThe Human Embryo: Between Oblivion and Meaningful Life

Abstract

The status of the human embryo continues to be the subject of intense debate. although many discussions concentrate on the status of the embryo per se, Ignoring other morally-relevant considerations. In the present article, a variety of scenes (destruction of a laboratory, married couples wanting a child, response to the embryo/foetus during pregnancy) is used in order to emphasize the context within which decisions regarding what is to be done with embryos takes place. It is argued that the moral value ascribed to the human embryo has to be placed alongside the moral value ascribed to humans involved in decision-making processes affecting both pre- and postnatal parties. An attempt to throw light on the status of the embryo leads to consideration of doomed embryo and embryo destruction syndromes, and of embryos as persons, non-persons, and potential persons. Emphasis is placed on embryos as protectable beings, and this perspective is enhanced by reference to biblical guidelines on fetal life.

Keywords

Human embryo, foetus, fertilization, personhood, human value
D. Gareth Jones April199461Free to view
ArticleEcofeminism and the Problem of Divine Immanence/Transcendence in Christian Environmental Ethics

Abstract

Ecofeminism, a combination of feminist concern for justice for humans with environmentalist concern for care of the earth, has produced both cosmological and ethical criticisms of Christianity. Although a number of influential ecofeminists wish to abandon Christianity completely and replace it with goddess worship, animism or witchcraft, other ecofeminist leaders wish to retain Christianity, while revising its theology. On the grounds that divine transcendence is innately hierarchial and encourages theologies of oppression, several ecofeminists have attempted to place a greater emphasis on divine immanence, or to incorporate goddess images into Christianity. These efforts are often historically or Biblically uninformed. Notwithstanding, ecofeminism is doing a service for Christian environmental ethics by emphasizing the relationship between the oppression of humans and the destruction of the natural world.

Keywords

environmental ethics, cosmology, animism, witchcraft, ecofeminism, social ethics, environmentalism, goddess worship, nature, love, hierarchy, process theology
Susan Power BrattonApril199461Free to view
ArticleA critique of Aspects of the Philosophy and Theology of Richard Dawkins

Abstract

Pronouncements made by scientists about religion are frequently seen as carrying some special authority. Undue weight may therefore be attached to their views on matters outside of their own fields of expertise. This possibility seemed to be particularly acute during Richard Dawkins’ 1991 Royal Institution Christmas Lectures, both on account of the number of antireligious assertions and of the youth of the audience. It is because of the widespread attempts which Dawkins has made to disseminate his personal world-view in the name of science, that a paper examining his claims seems called for. For those unfamiliar with his works, this paper offers a commentary on scientific naturalism.

Keywords

Richard Dawkins, design argument, evolution, explanation, faith, God, language. meaning, meme, metaphor, miracles. purpose. religion, selfish gene, supernatural
Michael PooleApril199461Free to view
ArticleScientific Fraud and Scientific Method: A Comment on J. N. Hawthorne’s Paper

Abstract

A recent paper by Tim Hawthorne in this Journal appeals for Christian standards to be applied in scientific practice. One of the examples of apparent scientific fraud quoted by Hawthorne is the work of Gregor Mendel on the inheritance of variation in peas. This may be too harsh: clearly Mendel’s results have stood the test of time, and it may have been that Mendel’s pea experiments were merely intended as a demonstration of concepts previously established by Mendel, but unreportable for reasons irrelevant to the science. Although we must be ruthlessly honest in our research, we must also recognise that scientific hypotheses do not arise (inductively) from simply collecting and organizing data. The conventional methods of publishing scientific results do not give scope for describing the reason for carrying out the investigation described.

Keywords

Scientific method, scientific fraud, Mendel, hypothesis
R. J. BerryApril199461Free to view
Book reviewGenetically Modified Organisms: Benefits and RisksJ. R. S. Fincham and J. R. Ravertz (Darryl Macer)April199461Free to view
Book reviewMiracles: Science, the Bible and experienceMichael Poole (Oliver Barclay)April199461Free to view
Book reviewGod is Green: Christianity and the EnvironmentIan Ronald (Alastair Grant) April199461Free to view
Book reviewCruelty and Christian Conscience: Bishops say no to FurAndrew Linzey (ed.) (Oliver Barclay)April199461Free to view
Book reviewFearful Symmetry, Is God a Geometer?I. Stewart and M. Golubitsky (Peter Landsberg)April199461Free to view
Book reviewReal Science, Real Faith (Sixteen leading British Scientists discuss their science and their personal faith)R. J. Berry (Ed.) (D. C. Spanner)April199461Free to view
Book reviewThe Discovery of Subatomic ParticlesS. Weinberg (Peter Landsberg)April199461Free to view
Book reviewFrom Apocalypse to Genesis: Ecology, Feminism and ChristianityAnn Primavesi (Lawrence Osborn) April199461Free to view
Book reviewThe CreationistsR. L. Numbers (M. B. Roberts)April199461Free to view
Book reviewPortraits of CreationVan Till et al. (M. B. Roberts)April199461Free to view
Book reviewScience held HostageVan Till (ed.) (M. B. Roberts)April199461Free to view
Book reviewThe Seven Pillories of WisdomDavid R. Hall (D. C. Spanner)April199461Free to view
Book reviewPractical Medical EthicsA. Campbell, G. Gillet and G. Jones (Caroline Berry)April199461Free to view
Book reviewOne Long Argument: Charles Darwin and the Genesis of Modern Evolutionary ThoughtErnst Mayr (D. C. Spanner) April199461Free to view
Book reviewLeaving Eden: To protect and manage the EarthE. G. Nisbet (Julian Evans)April199461Free to view
Book reviewInterpreting the Universe as Creation: A Dialogue of Science and ReligionVincent Brümmer (Lawrence Osborn) April199461Free to view
Book reviewWonderwoman and SupermanJohn Harris (Caroline Berry) April199461Free to view
Book reviewPhysics and Metaphysics: Theories of Space and TimeJennifer Trusted (D. A. Wilkinson)April199461Free to view
Book reviewThe Threat and the GloryP. B. Medawar (M. B. Roberts) April199461Free to view
ArticleEditorialDenis AlexanderOctober199352Free to view
ArticleThe Star of Bethlehem

Abstract

Evidence from the Bible and astronomy suggests that the Star of Bethlehem was a comet which was visible in 5 BC, and described in ancient Chinese records. A comet uniquely fits the description In Matthew of a star which newly appeared, which travelled slowly through the sky against the star background and which ‘stood over’ Bethlehem. The evidence points to Jesus being born in the period 9 March-4 May, 5 BC, probably around Passover time: 13-27 April, 5 BC. Birth in the spring is consistent with the account in Luke that there were shepherds living out in the fields nearby keeping watch over their flock by night. Birth in 5 BC also throws light upon the problem of the census of Caesar Augustus. A new chronology of the life of Christ is given which is consistent with the available evidence. This chronology suggests that Christ died close to his 37th birthday.

Keywords

astronomy, star of Bethlehem, birth of Christ, nativity, chronology of the New Testament, the Magi, comets, Christmas, Passover
Colin HumphreysOctober199352Free to view
ArticleMichael Faraday’s Bibles as Mirrors of his FaithHerbert T. PrattOctober199352Free to view
ArticleThe Ethics of Species Manipulation

Abstract

Life on Earth may be subdivided into discrete taxonomic groups called species using a variety of criteria. Any given species, however, may exhibit variation in different locations and through time. There are numerous natural ways in which the species barriers may be broken for gene flow to occur between diverse organisms of different kingdoms. Human manipulation of some species has acted as a strong selective pressure for millennia resulting in many domesticated breeds. This has been enhanced In the last few decades to such an extent that many animals suffer unduly for the sake of economic expediency. Modem technology may be seen as a refinement of these otherwise crude techniques that, in themselves, often mimic natural phenomena. Genetic engineering may be able to circumvent some of the results of the domestication of both ourselves and other organisms, but careful monitoring, legislation and education are needed in order for the advantages to be conferred without risk and exploitation.

Keywords

ethics,species manipulation, genetic engineering, animal use, gene therapy, DNA transfer, domestication, stewardship, suffering, welfare, genetically manipulated organisms
Tom Hartman Ross WilliamsOctober199352Free to view
ArticleChristianity and the Environment: Reflections on Rio and Au Sable

Abstract

The United Nations ‘Earth Summit’ last year in Rio was an ambitious attempt to address serious environmental issues in an international forum; opinions differ on its success, but one obvious feature of the summit was its recognition that environmental problems are also spiritual problems. The underlying spirituality of the earth summit was, however, a vague monism which affirmed little more than the sacredness of the earth. Though there was little attempt at the Earth summit to address environmental issues from a Christian basis, a Iater international meeting of Christian environmentalists and theologians at the Au Sable Institute In Michigan made significant progress in articulating a Biblical basis for addressing the complex issues of environment and development. One achievement of the Au Sable forum was the formation of an International Evangelical Network.

Keywords

Environment, Earth Summit, Au Sable, Creation
Loren WilkinsonOctober199352Free to view
ArticleQuantum Interpretation and Christian World-views

Abstract

It has been suggested that interpretations of quantum theory (such as that proposed by Wigner) which bring in the observer’s consciousness are somehow related to, or tend to support, ‘eastern mysticism’. This paper argues that in fact they come closer to supporting traditional Christian views of human nature, and discusses some of the objections raised to them, for example those which accuse them of non-realism or of being unable to cope with situations where a single event has two or more observers. Analogies are drawn with the nature of secondary qualities and with mediaeval debates over the age of the universe.

Keywords

Causation, consciousness, dualism, monism, quantum interpretation, realism, secondary qualities, special relativity, Wigner
R. L. SturchOctober199352Free to view
Book reviewMichael Faraday: Sandemanian and Scientist (A Study of Science and Religion in the Nineteenth Century)Geoffrey Cantor (Arie Leegwater)October199352Free to view
Book reviewChemical Evolution: Origin of the Elements, Molecules and Living SystemsStephen F. Mason (Colin A. Russell)October199352Free to view
Book reviewAstronomer by ChanceBernard Lovell (Robert Boyd)October199352Free to view
Book reviewUnderstanding the Present: science and the soul of modern manBrian Appleyard (Lawrence Osborn)October199352Free to view
ArticleGuest Editorial: ‘Without a Memory’Colin RussellApril199351Free to view
ArticleAppropriate Technology and Christian Belief: A Case Study of Amazonia

Abstract

The Amazon region is being destroyed because of the use of technologies that are Inappropriate for the region. Examples of this bad stewardship of the most diverse part of creation are given followed by some examples of how a more appropriate technology could achieve a balance between conservation and sustainable use of the region. This is related to the need for a christian concern for better stewardship of the earth based on strong biblical principles.

Keywords

Appropriate technology, agroforestry, Amazonia, Creation theology, justice, Amazon Indians
Ghillean T. PranceApril199351Free to view
ArticleThe Consistency of Physical Law With Divine Immanence

Abstract

A model is presented to show how the existence of physical law could be a reasonable consequence of Divine Immanence in the world of natural phenomena. Divine Immanence is seen as the continual production of the principal causes or dispositions which enable created thIngs to act and change. It is argued that this model is physically consistent, philosophically coherent, and theologically sound.

Keywords

Immanence, transcendence, theism, natural law, physics, science, dispositions, problem of evil
Ian J. ThompsonApril199351Free to view
ArticleScientific Fraud and Christian Ethics

Abstract

Fraud In science, though not common, is sufficiently widespread for governments to react. Examples of fraud are given, including the Piltdown skull, the work of Moewus on the genetics of algae and recent deceptions by biological scientists. Manipulation of statistical data, if not outright fraud, was practised by Mendel, the father of modern genetics, also by Sir Cyril Burt in his study of the heritability of intelligence. The motivation of such deceivers is considered and a Christian response to the problem is offered.

Keywords

Scientific fraud, Piltdown skull, Mendel, Statistics, IQ, Truth, Ethics
J. N. HawthorneApril199351Free to view
ArticleAnimal Rights: A Reply to Barclay

Abstract

The following comments are in response to an article by Dr Oliver BarcIay entitled ‘Animal Rights: a Critique’ (Science and Christian Belief (1992) 4, 4961).
Andrew LinzeyApril199351Free to view
Book reviewChance and ChaosDavid Rouelle (John Polkinghorne)April199351Free to view
Book reviewPierre Duhem: Philosophy and History in the Work of a Beliving PhysicistR. N. D. Martin (Lawrence Osborn)April199351Free to view
Book reviewDarwin on TrialPhillip E. Johnson (Oliver Barclay)April199351Free to view
Book reviewEvolution of the Brain: creation of the SelfJohn C. Eccles (Stuart Judge)April199351Free to view
Book reviewThe Mind of God: Science and the search for the ultimate meaningPaul Davies (Lawrence Osborn)April199351Free to view
Book reviewThe Politics of EvolutionAdrian Desmond (V. Paul Marston)April199351Free to view
Book reviewDarwinAdrian Desmond and James Moore (V. Paul Marston)April199351Free to view
Book reviewTheology for Scientific Age. Being and Becoming–Natural and DevineA. R. Peacocke (Jacques Arnould)April199351Free to view
Book reviewThe Justification of Science and the Rationality of Religious BeliefMichael C. Banner (Sally Alsford)April199351Free to view
ArticleEditorialDenis AlexanderOctober199242Free to view
ArticleNatural Law in the Natural Sciences: the Origins of Modern Atheism?

Abstract

It is commonly argued that the sciences have eroded religious belief by explaining physical phenomena in terms of natural laws. This formulation is, however, defective because it fails to recognise that what was often in dispute between secular and sacred philosophies of nature was not the possibility of law statements but the meaning to be attached to the ‘law’ metaphor. The object of the paper is to explore some of the resonances of the term in different historical contexts, to stress its strategic role in both secular and sacred constructions of nature, and to argue that the real issues dividing the theist from the atheist usually lay behind the veil of nature’s regularities.

Keywords

Law, nature, natural theology, atheism, deism, Newtonianism, Darwinism
John Hedley BrookeOctober199242Free to view
ArticleMapping the Human Genome: the Human Genome Project

Abstract

Growth of knowledge in human genetics for long lagged behind our knowledge of genetics in general. All areas of genetics have benefitted enormously from the input of recombinant DNA (genetic engineering) techniques. For human genetics there is now a coordinated effort, using all available techniques, to map the entire human genome. The Human Genome Project was initiated in 1990 and is due to be completed in 2005. The project, in common with nearly all new developments in science and technology, raises some social and ethical concerns; most if not all potential problems may be controlled by appropriate regulatory bodies. The benefits of the human genome project, especially for medicine, are likely to be enormous.

Keywords

DNA, genetic disease, genetic engineering, genome, human, Human Genome Project, recombinant DNA research
John BryantOctober199242Free to view
ArticleReview Article. Reason and Reality: The relationship between science and theology by John C. PolkinghorneOliver R. Barclay October199242Free to view
ArticleResponse to review articleJohn C. PolkinghorneOctober199242Free to view
Book reviewBlueprints: Solving the Mystery of EvolutionMaitland A. Edey & Donald C. Johanson (Darryl Macer)October199242Free to view
Book reviewShaping GenesDarryl Macer (John Bryant) October199242Free to view
Book reviewThe Unheeded CryBernard E. Rollin (T. J. Parkinson)October199242Free to view
Book reviewTheology and the Justification of FaithWentzel Van Huyssteen (W. S. K. Chalmers) October199242Free to view
Book reviewThe Description of nature. Niels Bohr and the Philosophy of PhysicsJohn Honner (Peter Landsberg)October199242Free to view
Book reviewThinking about Science–Max Delbrück and the Origins of Molecular BiologyErnst Peter Fischer and Carol Lipson (David M. Taylor) October199242Free to view
Book reviewGod Values, and Empiricism: Issues in Philosophieal TheologyCreighton Peden and Larry Axel (Robert C. Bishop)October199242Free to view
Book reviewThe Earth is the Lord’sSteve Bishop and Christopher Droop (Leslie Batty)October199242Free to view
Book reviewThinking About Nature: An Investigation of Nature, Value and EcologyAndrew Brennan (Peter D. Moore)October199242Free to view
Book reviewGlobal WarmingStephen H. Schneider (John Houghton) October199242Free to view
Book reviewAnimal and Christianity. A Book of ReadingsAndrew Linzey and Torn Regan (Oliver Barclay) October199242Free to view
Book reviewGenesis TodayErnest Lucas (Reg Luhman)October199242Free to view
Book reviewScience and Religion: One world–changing perspectives on realityJan Fennema and lain Paul (Revd. Dr. D. C. Spanner)October199242Free to view
Book reviewReligion in an Age of Science, The Gifford Lectures 1989-1991Ian Barbour (Lawrence Osborn)October199242Free to view
Book reviewCreation out of NothingDon Cupitt (Lawrence Osborn)October199242Free to view
Book reviewThe Savior of ScienceStanley L. Jaki (David Burgess)October199242Free to view
Book reviewHow to Ploy Theological Ping PongBasil Mitchell (M. B. Roberts) October199242Free to view
Book reviewEndFrank Close (A. G. Stewart) October199242Free to view
Book reviewBeyond the Big Bang: Quantum Cosmologies and GodWilliam B. Drees (Robert L. F. BoydOctober199242Free to view
Book reviewScience of the Gods: Reconciling mystery & matterDavid Ash & Peter Hewitt (Lawrence Osborne)October199242Free to view
Book reviewThe Rebirth of Nature; The Greening of Science and GodRupert Sheldrake (Lawrence Osborn)October199242Free to view
Book reviewThe Fate of the Forest–Developer, Destroyers and Defenders of the AmazonSusanna Hecht and Alexander Cockburn (Julian Evans) October199242Free to view
Book reviewThe Purpose of It AllStanley L. Jaki (Robert C. Bishop) October199242Free to view
Book reviewThe Power of MiracleNorman R. C. Dockeray (J. H. Chamberlayne) October199242Free to view
Book reviewBiology Through the Eyes of FaithR. T. Wright (A. B. Robins) October199242Free to view
Book reviewMan on EarthJohn Reader (A. B. Robins)October199242Free to view
ArticleA Short Introduction to the New Age Movement

Abstract

The following notes were written as background information for participants in a ‘Christians in Science’ conference on the subject ‘Science, Christianity and the New Age Movement’ (Regent’s College, London, 28 September, 1991). The notes are reproduced here to introduce the central tenets of New Age thinking, other aspects of this movement being analysed in greater depth in three further articles in this issue.
Ernest LucasApril199242Free to view
ArticleEditorialDenis AlexanderApril199241Free to view
ArticleScientific Truth and New Age Thinking

Abstract

Proponents of the ‘New Age Movement’ adopt an epistemology that is opposed to that of science. Fritjof Capra’s critique of the classical scientific method epitomises their attitude. However, some New Age writers claim that modern physics supports their view of reality and the nature of truth. Some examples of their argument are given. It is proposed that their criticisms of science are really criticisms of ‘scientism’, a metaphysical construct based on the assumption that the scientific method is the only way to truth. The New Age appeal to modem physics is assessed. It is argued that Christianity provides a metaphysical framework that is more compatible with science than the metaphysical framework of New Age thinking.

Keywords

New Age, Christianity, Relativity, Quantum Theory, Rationality, Objectivity, Subjectivity, Capra, Reductionism
Ernest LucasApril199241Free to view
ArticleThe Machine and the Mother Goddess: the Gaia Hypothesis in Comtemporary Scientific and Religious Thought

Abstract

James Lovelock’s Gaia Hypothesis has received widespread publicity as a popular explanatIon of the development of the global ecosystem. The article examines its credibility as a scientific hypothesis and examines some of the more common criticisms levelled against it. It has come under suspicion because of its apparent affinity with recent mystical approaches to the natural world. The article argues that a clear distinction must be drawn between its use as a scientific hypothesis and the attempts to associate it with such concepts as planetary consciousness and earth goddess. It is suggested that the hypothesis may have a limited role in contemporary Christian theologies of nature provided certain safeguards are maintained.

Keywords

Earth Mysticism, Gaia Hypothesis, Global Ecosystem, Goddess, Green Spirituality, New Age Movement, Planetary Consciousness, Theology of Nature
Lawrence Osborn April199241Free to view
ArticleGaia, Science and the New AgeTom Hartman, Bimal Theophilus and Ross Williams: response to Lawrence OsbornApril199241Free to view
ArticleAnimal Rights: a Critique

Abstract

The concept of animal rights and the difficulty of defining it is examined. The positions of the leading thinkers of the animal rights movement are reviewed. Neither the criteria of ‘the ability to suffer’ or ‘being the subject of a life’ are found satisfactory. Christian thinkers in this area often do not use the concept of rights, but the position of Andrew Linzey, who does so, is criticised. It is argued that a broader and more soundly established Christian approach in terms of responsibilities for and duties to animals and to the whole creation is much more satisfactory. The term animal rights is best abandoned in favour of these other concepts. A brief outline is given of a Christian approach.

Keywords

Animal rights, animal welfare, human duties, human rights, image of God, Andrew Linzey, naturalistic fallacy, Tom Regan, Peter Singer, stewardship, utilitarianism
Oliver R. BarclayApril199241Free to view
ArticleReview Article. Behind the Eye: Logic and Coherence in the Writings of Donald MacKay

Abstract

In his book ‘Behind the Eye’ Donald MacKay sets forth an approach to brain science based on a number of hypothetical schemes emanating from information theory. This leads him to distinguish between the I-story and the brain-story, and as a basic hypothesis to view the brain in mechanistic terms. He develops the concept of logical indeterminacy, according to which, even if the brain is physically determinate, it is logically indeterminate and persons have freedom of choice. Theologically, he distinguishes between God as creator and God as he deals personally with his creatures (God-in-dialogue). In the light of this, he discusses randomness, religious knowledge, and eternal life.

Keywords

Brain, Cognitive mechanism, God-in-dialogue, Logical indeterminacy, Gifford Lectures
D. Gareth Jones April199241Free to view
Book reviewGod and the CosmologistsStanley L. Jakl (Jonathan Topham) April199241Free to view
Book reviewDivine ActionsKeith Ward (Lawrence Osborn) April199241Free to view
Book reviewCosmic OdysseyJean Heidman (E. J. Squires)April199241Free to view
Book reviewCreation of the UniverseFang Li Zhi and Li Shu Xian (E. J. Squires)April199241Free to view
Book reviewGenetic Engineering: An Introduction to Gene Analysis and Exploitation in EukaryotesS. M. Kingsman & A. J. Kingsman (Darryl Macer)April199241Free to view
Book reviewCreated from Animals: The Moral Implications of DarwinismJames Rachels (D. C. Spanner) April199241Free to view
Book reviewCan Scientists Believe?Nevill Matt (Ed.) (Roland Dobbs)April199241Free to view
Book reviewTheories of Everything–The Quest for Ultimate ExplanationJohn D. Barrow (Robert Boyd) April199241Free to view
Book reviewPathways in Medical EthicsAlan G. Johnson (Caroline Berry)April199241Free to view
Book reviewThe New Medicine & The Old EthicsAlbert R. Jansen (Caroline Berry) April199241Free to view
Book reviewGreening Business: Managing for sustainable developmentJohn Davis (Oliver R. Barclay)April199241Free to view
ArticleEditorialOliver R. BarclayOctober199132Free to view
ArticleThe Miraculous

Abstract

The sceptical attitude to miracles expressed by David Hume, and followed by many others, is examined from several different standpoints. Hume’s argument against attempts to prove the truth of Christianity from miracles reported in the Bible seems largely valid. However, his other criticisms of miracles are weakened by a misconception of the Christian view of the place of miracles in the faith. In common with others, Hume’s view of miracles as a violation of a law of nature reveals a misunderstanding. Finally his views on testimony and experience are examined.

Keywords

Evidence for Christianity, Evidence for miracles, David Hume, Scientific laws, Testimony, Proof
Paul HelmOctober199132Free to view
ArticleHow Not to Think About Miracles

Abstract

A critique is made of C.S. Lewis’ book Miracles. It is argued that Lewis’ definition of miracle in terms of Invasion of Nature by Supematural power is mistaken, as is his view that rational thought is itself a ‘miracle’. Lewis’ notion of what a mechanistic view of nature entails is also questioned, as is his assumption, without supporting argument, of a Platonistic point of view. While the book does have valuable insights, the weakness of the principal arguments cannot be overlooked.

Keywords

C. S. Lewis, Miracles, Nature, Platonism, Rational thought, Supernatural
Stuart JudgeOctober199132Free to view
ArticleNewton’s Rejection of the ‘Newtonian World View’: The Role of Divine Will in Newton’s Natural Philosophy

Abstract

The typical picture of Isaac Newton as the paragon of Enlightenment deism, endorsing a remote divine clockmaker and the separation of science from religion, is badly mistaken. In fact Newton rejected both the clockwork metaphor and the cold mechanical universe upon which it is based. His conception of the world reflects rather a deep commitment to the constant activity of the divine willi unencumbered by the ‘rational’ restrictions that Descartes and Leibniz placed on God, the very sorts of restrictions that later appealed to the deists of the 18th century.

Keywords

Descartes Deism. Divine upholding, Enlightenment. ‘laws’ of nature, Leibnitz, Mechanistic view, Newton, Newtonian world-view
Edward B. Davis October199132Free to view
ArticleEvil in the Non-Human World

Abstract

The article briefly surveys some of the traditional responses to the problem of evil, focusing on the implications for natural evil of Irenean and Augustinian approaches. It goes on to suggest that a deeper consideration of the interdependence of all creation can illuminate the problem and that there are important theological reasons for questioning the common distinction between ‘natural evil’ and ‘moral evil’, and for using the language of creation-fall-redemption as a way of exploring the connections between them.

Keywords

Creation, Moral evil, Natural evil, Fall, Salvation, Suffering, Irenean theodicy, Augustinian theodicy
S. E. Alsford October199132Free to view
Book reviewPhysics and the WorldNiels Bohr (John Polkinghorne)October199132Free to view
Book reviewScience and Philosophy: Past and PresentDerek Gjertsen (Paul Helm)October199132Free to view
Book reviewWhat Mad PursuitFrancis Crick (A. B. Robins)October199132Free to view
Book reviewA Brief History of Eternity: A considered response to Stephen Hawking’s ‘A Brief History of Time’Roy E. Peacock (David A. Wilkinson)October199132Free to view
Book reviewGenetics, The Ethics of Engineering LifeDavid Suzuki and Peter Knudtson (Caroline Berry)October199132Free to view
Book reviewThe Selfish Gene, New EditionRichard Dawkins (Darryl Macer)October199132Free to view
Book reviewThe Word of Science: The Religious and Social Thought of C. A. CoulsonDavid & Eileen Hawkin (Lawrence Osborn)October199132Free to view
Book reviewThe Big Bang, Revised and Updated EditionJoseph Silk (Robert Boyd)October199132Free to view
Book reviewSidereus Nuncius, or The Sidereal MessengerGalileo Galilei (C. A. Russell) October199132Free to view
Book reviewScience, Order and CreativityDavid Bohm and F. David Peat (Jonathan R. Topham)October199132Free to view
Book reviewInfinite in All DirectionsFreeman J. Dyson (Ernest C. Lucas)October199132Free to view
Book reviewSchrodinger: Life and ThoughtWalter Moore (John Polkinghorne)October199132Free to view
Book reviewGrounds for Reasonable BeliefRussell Stannard (Lawrence Osborn)October199132Free to view
Book reviewThe Human Career: Human Biological and Cultural OriginsRichard G. Klein (Gordon Barnes)October199132Free to view
Book reviewAn Introduction to the Philosophy of ScienceAnthony O’Hear (Melvin Tinker)October199132Free to view
Book reviewPhysics and Philosophy: The Revolution in Modem ScienceWerner Heisenberg (David A. Wilkinson)October199132Free to view
Book reviewThe Mind on FireBlaise Pascal (Oliver R. Barclay)October199132Free to view
Book reviewThe Darwinian Paradigm: Essays on its History, Philosophy, and Religious ImplicationsMichael Ruse (Gordon E. Barnes)October199132Free to view
Book reviewThe Gene ShiftersJohn Newell (Neil Messer)October199132Free to view
Book reviewWisdom, Information & Wonder. What is knowledge for?Mary Midgley (Lawrence Osborn)October199132Free to view
Book reviewDarwin and the General ReaderAlvar Ellegard (Darryl Macer)October199132Free to view
Book reviewThe God Who Would be Known: Revelations of the Divine in Contemporary ScienceJohn. M. Templeton and Robert L. Herrmann (Oliver Barclay)October199132Free to view
Book reviewWonderful Life–The Burgess Shale and the Nature of HistoryStephen Jay Gould (Peter Mott)October199132Free to view
Book reviewMultiple Exposure–Chronicles of the Radiation AgeCatherine Caufield (Andrew Fox)October199132Free to view
Book reviewRochester Roundabout. The Story of High Energy PhysicsJohn Polkinghorne (Robert Boyd)October199132Free to view
Book reviewHealing: Fiction, Fantasy or Fact?David C. Lewis (John Wilkinson) October199132Free to view
ArticleEditorialOliver R. BarclatApril199131Free to view
ArticleChristianity and the Environment: Escapist Mysticism or Responsible Stewardship

Abstract

Sermon preached by Professor R. J. Berry at St. Paul’s Church, Sketty, Swansea on 19 August 1990 at an Ecumenical Service to mark the beginning of SCIENCE 90, the 152nd Annual Meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science. Summary: Christians (or the ‘Judaeo–Christian tradition’) have repeatedly been cast as the villains behind environmental damage. This depends on a wrong understanding of God as remote from the world (a ‘God of the Gaps’, who is perhaps merely a ‘blind watchmaker’) and of mankind as qualitatively inseparable from other animals and not accountable to God. It is here argued that the mechanical (or material) cause of an event (which answers the question ‘how?’) is only part of its explanation, and needs complementing by a formal description of its cause (which answers the question ‘why?’), and that we have to recognize that science cannot supply answers to all questions. This opens the possibility of a reasonable faith in a God who creates and sustains our world. Christianity, properly understood, leads to a responsible stewardship of the environment and not to flagrant abuse or escapist mysticism; it converges with and provides an undergirding to secular thinking as expressed by the Brundtland Commission (on sustainable development) and the Economic Summit Nations (on environmental ethics). But the Bible goes further in urging an awe for creation, and identifying the regularity of crops and seasons as a ‘clue’ to God’s activity. Christians have a positive contribution to make in environmental teaching and practice, and ought to be bolder in their witness.

Keywords

Key Words: Eastern Religions, Environment. Ethics. Francis of Assisi; Gaia, Image of God. Mysticism, Stewardship. Sustainable Development
R. J. BerryApril199131Free to view
ArticleA Bibliography on Environmental IssuesR. J. BerryApril199131Free to view
ArticleReport from Bergen

Abstract

The Bergen Conference of the United Nations achieved some Important advances in directions that should be endorsed by Christians. Mutual understanding between different interests and willingness to co-operate over environmental issues were Increased. Many were convinced that industry can be a partner and not an enemy of the environment and that a long term view must be taken and at an intematlonal level.

Keywords

Bergen, Brundtland, Environment, Industrial responsibility, Sustainable development
Peter BrightApril199131Free to view
ArticleCreation Time–What does Genesis Say?

Abstract

Scientists, when they discuss the early chapters of Genesis, can be pushed into generalizations about their literary structure without adequte reference to linguistic opinion on the matter. Some relevant features of the Genesis text are here compared with other ancient Near East texts. It is proposed that the six days of Genesis could very well be days of revelation, rather than days of creational activity.

Keywords

Babylonian tablets, colophons. days of Genesis 1., early writing, literary structure, Sabbath
D. J. WisemanApril199131Free to view
ArticleGödel’s Theorem in Perspective

Abstract

Interest continues in a mathematical theorem first stated by Kurt Gödel in 1931. This paper reviews a recent popularization of the theorem by Raymond Smullyan in his paperback ‘Forever Undecided’. Considerable use is also made of Douglas Hofstadter’s account in ‘Gödel-Escher-Bach’. The key ideas of consistency, formal systems, self-reference, provability and truth are developed. and an outline is given of Gödel’s two theorems and those of Henkin and Lob. Applications and analogies are then distinguished and discussed, including computer theory, the human mind, cosmology, the work of Rosen in biology, and the status of the Church-Turing thesis. Finally, attention is paid to some implications for Christian belief the nature of man, is belief self-fulfilling, is the Bible self-referent, and the importance of the personal encounter.

Keywords

Artificial Intelligence, Church-Turing Thesis, decidability, formal systems, Gödel, Hofstadter, image of God, proof, Smullyan, truth
H. Martyn Cundy April199131Free to view
ArticleResponse to Article: What does Gödel tell us?

Keywords

Apologetics, Artiflcial intelligence, Church-Turing Thesis, Gödel, proof, truth
Nigel J. CutlandApril199131Free to view
Book reviewEvolution and Creation: A European PerspectiveSvend Andersen (Ed) and Arthur Peacocke (O. R. Barclay)April199131Free to view
Book reviewFree Will and DeterminismViggo Mortensen (Ed) and Robert C. Sorensen (O. R. Barclay)April199131Free to view
Book reviewThe God Who RespondsH. D. McDonald (D. C. Spanner)April199131Free to view
Book reviewDarwin’s Metaphor: Nature’s Place in Victorian CultureRobert M. Young (D. W. Bebbington)April199131Free to view
Book reviewBones of ContentionRoger Lewin (John R. Armstrong)April199131Free to view
Book reviewLife Pulse: Episodes from the Story of the Fossil RecordNiles Eldredge (John R. Armstrong)April199131Free to view
Book reviewTheories at Work: on the structure and functioning of theories in science, in particular during the Copernican RevolutionMarinus Dirk Stafleu (Peter J. Mott)April199131Free to view
Book reviewExplanation from Physics to Theology: an essay in rationality and religionPhilip Clayton (Peter J. Mott)April199131Free to view
Book reviewLogic and Affirmation, Perspectives in Mathematics and TheologyJohn Puddefoot (K. G. Horswell)April199131Free to view
Book reviewMindwavesColin Blakemore and Susan Greenfield (Eds) (P. Knox)April199131Free to view
Book reviewGenetic Engineering: Catastrophe or Utopia?Peter R. Wheale & Ruth M. McNally (Darryl Macer)April199131Free to view
Book reviewGod and Creation in Christian Theology: Tyranny or Empowerment?Kathryn Tanner (Lawrence H. Osborn)April199131Free to view
Book reviewEvolution–the Great DebateVernon Blackmore and Andrew Page (Denis R. Alexander)April199131Free to view
Book reviewScience as a Process. An Evolutionary Account of the Social and Conceptual Development of ScienceDavid L. Hull (David N. Livingstone)April199131Free to view
Book reviewThe Conquest of the Microchip: Science and Business in the Silicon AgeHans Queisser (David Lyon)April199131Free to view
Book reviewKnowledge of God: Calvin, Einstein and Polanyilain Paul (J. W. Ward)April199131Free to view
Book reviewWas Einstein Right? Putting General Relativity to the Test?Clifford M. Will (David A. Wilkinson)April199131Free to view
Book reviewThe How and Why: An Essay on the Origins and Development of Physical TheoryDavid Park (J. H. Brook)April199131Free to view
ArticleThe Environment Issue in 1554ADJohn CalvinOctober199022Free to view
ArticleA Scientist’s View of Religion

Abstract

This article is based on the Priestley Lecture given to the Royal Society of Chemistry in September 1989. The triennial Priestley Conferences, sponsored by BOC Ltd. and organized by the Royal Society of Chemistry, include one Priestley Lecture, which is concerned with some theme associated with Joseph Priestley (1733-1804) himself. This lecture was first published in the Conference Proceedings, entitled Separation of Gases (RSC, 1990) and we are grateful for permission to reproduce it here for the benefit of a wider readership. (Summary.) The interaction between scientific and religious views of the world is considered in relation to seven issues: (1) the intelligibility of the physical world; (2) the anthropic principle; (3) the interplay of chance and necessity; (4) the openness of physical process; (5) the ultimate futility of the universe; (6) the idea of resurrection; (7) the problem of miracle.

Keywords

anthropic principle, chance and necessity, chaos, consonance, evil, intelligibility, miracle, personal knowledge, providence, resurrection
John C. PolkinghorneOctober199022Free to view
ArticleThe Revival of Natural Theology in Contemporary Cosmology

Abstract

The recent use of cosmology to make theological claims is critically reviewed, with special reference to the work of Hawking, Davies, Hoyle, Polkinghorne, Houghton and Van Till. Their scientific arguments are presented and four basic approaches to the relationship of science and theology are identified. The reason for this recent revival of natural theology is analysed with its limitations and dangers.

Keywords

chance, cosmology, P. Davies, deism, S. W. Hawking, J. T. Houghton, F. Hoyle, natural theology, J. C. Polkinghorne, revealed theology, theism, H. Van Till
David A. WilkinsonOctober199022Free to view
ArticleEvolution, Eschatology, and the Privatization of Providence

Abstract

The relationship between evangelical Christianity and evolutionary theory has been conceptualized in a number of ways. By reviewing several major historiographical models the real complexity of evangelical encounters with evolution is revealed. This paper argues that ideas about providence and eschatology had important influences on the attitude to evolution adopted by evangelical Christians.

Keywords

design, eschatology, evangelicals, evolutionary theory, historiography, natural theology, providence
David N. LivingstoneOctober199022Free to view
ArticleThe Exploitation of Forests

Abstract

The disharmony between mankind and the natural world is nowhere better illustrated than in the study of forest ecosystems. Since prehistoric times the removal of forest cover in temperate areas has led to retrogressive processes in vegetation and this form of destruction is now accelerating in the tropics, possibly creating global problems. The stewardship demanded of us in Genesis requires that we seek alternative ways of deriving sustenance from the forests that permit sustainable harvesting.

Keywords

Forest, natural resources, ecology, conservation, stewardship, dominion of nature, sustainable harvests
Peter D. MooreOctober199022Free to view
ArticleResponse to Article: Use and Abuse of Tropical ForestsJulian EvansOctober199022Free to view
Book reviewTheology and Science at the Frontiers of KnowledgeT. F. Torrance (Ed.) (Arie Leegwater)October199022Free to view
Book reviewReality and Scientific TheologyT. F. Torrance (Arie Leegwater)October199022Free to view
Book reviewCircles of God: Theology and Science from the Greeks to CopernicusH. P. Nebelsick (Arie Leegwater)October199022Free to view
Book reviewScience and Theology in Einstein’s Perspectivelain Paul (Arie Leegwater)October199022Free to view
Book reviewTradition and Authority in Science and TheologyAlexander Thomson (Arie Leegwater)October199022Free to view
Book reviewEinstein and Christ: A New Approach to the Defence of the Christian ReligionR. G. Mitchell (Arie Leegwater)October199022Free to view
Book reviewEconomics Today–A Christian CritiqueDonald Hay (Colin Hill)October199022Free to view
Book reviewThe Universe Next Door:James W. Sire (David Lyon)October199022Free to view
Book reviewCommunicating the Gospel in a Scientific AgeHugh Montefiore (David. A. Wilkinson)October199022Free to view
ArticleObituary: Professor G. C. StewardC. A. RussellApril199021Free to view
ArticleIs there a Preferred Philosophy of Science for Christians?

Abstract

After some remarks about the relationship between Christian faith and theoretical and experimental enquiry, particularly scientific enquiry, the author provides a sketch of some different approaches to the philosophy of science. The inevitable connection between the theory of science and scientific success is stressed. But there is a basic difference of approach between those who emphasise the formal conditions of explanation in natural science and those who claim that any explanation must, first and foremost, convey an increased understanding of the phenomena. The article concludes by stressing that, while the Christian has considerable liberty in his approach to the philosophy of science, it would be inconsistent with the Christian faith to adopt any philosophy which denied that there were objective truths of nature.

Keywords

Francis Bacon, explanation, falsification, Paul Feyerabend, Thomas Kuhn, objective truths, paradigms, philosophy of science, Karl Popper, prediction, verification
Paul HelmApril199021Free to view
ArticleWhaling–a Christian Position

Abstract

Whaling has a long history of depleting successive stocks and the whale has become the symbol of our mishandling of environmental matters in general. The biblical foundation for man’s dominion of nature should be the source of a sound conservation ethic. It implies responsible stewardship, including the taking of no more than sustainable harvests. In the case of the whales this has not happened, through ignorance and greed. The problem of humane killing of animals is highlighted. The question of whether or not whales are ‘intelligent’ is left open; but they are not made in the image of God as is man, and are not his equal. Certain Arctic communities are dependent on whales for their subsistance, with no reasonable alternatives available, while some other coastal villagers have a long whaling tradition, so that its prohibition causes them hardship. We need to be responsive to these human needs.

Keywords

Conservation ethic, dominion of nature, human need, humane killing, intelligence, image of God, stewardship, subsistence, sustainable harvests, whaling
Ray Gambell April199021Free to view
ArticleGenetic Engineering in 1990

Abstract

This paper seeks to review ‘the state of the art’ in genetic technology and look at key issues of ethics arising from their use on nonhuman life. A Christian approach to these issues is able to deal satisfactorily with them, involving Biblical principles of high respect for life and stewardship.

Keywords

Cloning, Environmental release, genetic engineering, patenting of animals
Darryl Macer April199021Free to view
ArticleJohn D. Barrow and Frank J. Tipler: The Anthropic Cosmological Principle

Abstract

Barrow and Tipler’s treatment of the anthropic principle is briefly discussed, and a critique is given of their claim that the ‘strong’ anthropic principle is verifiable without appealing to theological presuppositions.

Keywords

weak and strong anthropic principles, many-worlds interpretation, quantum mechanics, theological presuppositions
Robert K. CliftonApril199021Free to view
ArticleA theological perspective on Barrow and Tipler’s: The Anthropic Cosmological Principle

Abstract

The role of teleology in general and the various forms of the anthropic principle in particular are lucidly summarised in this important book. This review article focuses its attention upon the philosophical and theological implications of Barrow and Tipler’s work. It is argued that, in their hands, the anthropic principle becomes a vehicle for the defence of post-Enlightenment liberalism. The possibility of a natural theology based upon the anthropic principle is noted and several doubts about the wisdom of such an approach are raised.

Keywords

Anthropic principle, many-worlds interpretation, natural theology, post-enlightenment liberalism, teleology
Lawrence H. Osborn April199021Free to view
ArticleDivine sovereignty, personal freedom and indeterminacy: A response to Dr. Polkinghorne

Keywords

Chance, control of events, creation, divine sovereignty, indeterminacy, personal freedom
Valerie MacKay April199021Free to view
ArticleGod and the New Biology’–an elucidation: A response to Alister E. McGrath

Keywords

evolution, immanence, incarnation, transcendence
Arthur PeacockeApril199021Free to view
Book reviewThe World within the WorldJohn D. Barrow (Robert Boyd)April199021Free to view
Book reviewScience and Providence–God’s Interaction with the WorldJohn Polkinghorne (Douglas C. Spanner)April199021Free to view
Book reviewA Brief History of TimeStephen W. Hawking (M. W. Poole) April199021Free to view
Book reviewDoes God Play Dice?John Houghton (David Ingram) April199021Free to view
Book reviewDoes God Play Dice? The Mathematics of ChaosIan Stewart (David A. Wilkinson)April199021Free to view
Book reviewTowards a Story of the Earth: Essays in the Theology of CreationDennis Carroll (Ron Elsdon) April199021Free to view
Book reviewMemoir of a Thinking RadishPeter Medawar (M. B. Roberts)April199021Free to view
Book reviewVital PrinciplesAndrew Scott (A. B. Robins)April199021Free to view
Book reviewThe Design of LifeRenato Dulbecco (A. B. Robins) April199021Free to view
Book reviewBiology through the eyes of FaithRichard T. Wright (Oliver Barclay)April199021Free to view
Book reviewThe Riddles of Jesus & Answers of ScienceOsborn Segerberg Jr (Edward Rogers)April199021Free to view
Book reviewTaking Darwin Seriously: A Naturalistic Approach to PhilosophyMichael Ruse (Gordon E. Barnes) April199021Free to view
Book reviewScience and Hermeneutics–Foundations of Contemporary InterpretationVern Poythress (Melvin Tinker) April199021Free to view
Book reviewGalileo: HereticPietro Redondi (C. A. Russell)April199021Free to view
Book reviewChaos: Making a New ScienceJames Gleick (John Houghton) April199021Free to view
ArticleEditorialOliver R. BarclayOctober198912Free to view
ArticleA Still-bent World: Some Reflections on Current Environmental Problems

Abstract

Long-standing and newly-emerging issues in environmental management continue to pose threats to the continued well-being of humanity and the rest of the created order. After a welter of secular and Christian publications in recent years, reflection suggests a number of particular questions requiring consideration in the context of a biblical theology which encompasses creation, fall and redemption. These questions include issues to do with the nature of the scientific process, the prediction of future trends, and the problems of risk analysis. This approach offers the opportunity for Christians to engage in dialogue with others involved in decision making at a time when governments are increasingly sensitive to public concern over environmental problems.

Keywords

environmental management, creation, fall, redemption, future trends, risk analysis
Ron ElsdonOctober198912Free to view
ArticleA Note on Chaotic Dynamics

Abstract

The insights of chaotic dynamics are held to encourage a supple view of physical reality which is capable of accommodating human freedom within its world view. It is suggested that such a metaphysical scheme encourages a move beyond the God of deism to the God of theism, interacting with his creation and known through personal encounter.

Keywords

chaotic dynamics, physical reality, human freedom, deism, theism
John PolkinghorneOctober198912Free to view
ArticleThe Argument from Design in Early Modern Theology

Abstract

This article traces the argument from design from its origins in pre-Christian Stoicism and its adoption by the early Church Fathers. It underwent a revival in the early modern period of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, when the Scientific Revolution provided new knowledge of the world which could be used to demonstrate the God-given design in nature. Its popularity was greatest in England, where it was encouraged by the religious open-mindedness, the interest in natural history, the Baconian scientific empiricism and the Newtonian tradition in physics and cosmology. Although it incurred the opposition of some philosophers, it was taken up not only by Christians but also by Deists and by writers of the Romantic Movement. The freedom of thought encouraged by the Newtonian cosmologically-slanted natural theology alarmed orthodox Christian divines, and under their influence there was a move to restrict the argument from design to natural history in the later eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, a tendency which reached its peak with Paley’s Evidences of Christianity and Natural Theology.

Keywords

argument from design, Stoicism, early Church Fathers, Scientific Revolution, Baconian scientific empiricism, Newtonian tradition, Deists, Romantic Movement, Paley’s Evidences of Christianity, Natural Theology
Norma Emerton October198912Free to view
ArticleTeleology and the Concept of Natural Law: an Historical Perspective

Abstract

The paper considers the difficulty of retaining an active sense of divine providence when events are explained by scientific laws. Historical examples are used to illustrate how the advance of naturalistic explanation may reduce both the sense of wonder in creation, and the apologetic force of the argument from design. The God-of-the-gaps mentality is rejected in favour of a divine Iegislator conception of God: laws are seen as contingent on God’s will and therefore ‘miraculous’. Difficulties with this approach are discussed, and an agenda is proposed for the formulation of a theology of nature based upon it.

Keywords

divine providence, naturalistic explanation, wonder in creation, argument from design, divine Iegislator, miraculous
Jonathan R. TophamOctober198912Free to view
ArticleArthur Peacocke’s New Biology: New Wine in Old Bottles

Abstract

Dr. Arthur Peacocke’s book God and the New Biology is reviewed and its examination of reductionism as well as other features welcomed. His solution of the question of God’s relationship to the world in terms of panentheism and a sacramental model are criticized.

Keywords

God and the New Biology, reductionism, panentheism, sacramental
J. W. Haas, Jr.October198912Free to view
ArticleOld Theology and the New Biology

Abstract

The philosophical and theological aspects of Arthur Peacocke’s God and the New Biology are briefly examined. It is suggested that its more significant conclusions rest upon a questionable merging of two different understandings of the term ‘incarnation’, neither of which appears capable of justification within the framework which Peacocke proposes. Many of Peacocke’s conclusions it is argued lie on Hegelian, rather than biblical, foundations.

Keywords

God and the New Biology, incarnation, Hegelian
Alister E. McGrathOctober198912Free to view
Book reviewThe Anthropic Cosmological PrincipleJohn D. Barrow and Frank J. Tipler (Robert Boyd)October198912Free to view
Book reviewGod and the Processes of Reality: Foundations of a Credible TheismDavid A. Pailin (Lawrence H. Osborn) October198912Free to view
Book reviewSuperstrings: A Theory of Everything?Paul Davies and Julian Brown (eds) (Roland Dobbs)October198912Free to view
Book reviewThe Ages of Gaia: A biography of our living EarthJames Lovelock (Lawrence Osborn) October198912Free to view
Book reviewHuman Future?Alan Jiggins (Richard Skinner) October198912Free to view
Book reviewGlaube und DenkenJahrbuch der Karl-Heim Gesellschaft (Russell Kleckley) October198912Free to view
Book review‘An Urchin in the Storm’S. J. Gould (P. C. Knox)October198912Free to view
Book reviewA Passion for ScienceLewis Wolpert and Alison Richards (D. A. Burgess)October198912Free to view
Book reviewExploring Inner Space: Scientists and Religious ExperienceDavid Hay (A. N. Triton)October198912Free to view
Book reviewThe Wonderful Mistake: Notes of a Biology WatcherLewis Thomas (Douglas C. Spanner)October198912Free to view
Book reviewPhilosophy of Biology TodayMichael Ruse (Douglas C. Spanner) October198912Free to view
Book reviewPersons and Personality, A Contemporary InquiryArthur Peacocke and Grant Gillett (ed) (James S. Nelson)October198912Free to view
Book reviewThe Genetic JigsawRobin Mckie (Caroline Berry) October198912Free to view
ArticleEditorialOliver R. BarclayApril198911Free to view
ArticleThe Conflict Metaphor and its Social Origins

Abstract

The origins of the widespread myth of an endemic conflict between science and religion are principally to be located in a sustained campaign last century by T. H. Huxley and the scientific naturalists for hegemony in Victorian Britain. In this the members of the X-Club played a prominent role. A main part of their strategy to liberate science from clerical control (as they saw it) was to portray the Darwinian debacle as characteristic of the relations between science and religion in general. Their efforts were aided by highly polemic, Whiggish attempts at historiography in the USA by J. W. Draper and A. D. White.

Keywords

myth, conflict, T. H. Huxley, scientific naturalists, hegemony, X-Club, Darwinian, Whiggish, historiography, J. W. Draper, A. D. White
Colin A. Russell April198911Free to view
ArticleIn What Sense can a Computer ‘Understand’?

Abstract

Computers can in principle carry out many and perhaps all of the functions of the brain. This does not mean that they can think or understand. In debate with behaviourism and with J. Searle it is maintained that brains do not understand. Understanding is something that agents do. It is however possible to devise artificial agents embodied in a computer, but it is the agent and not the computer that understands. This gives no reason for claiming that such artificial agents can think, or are conscious centres of awareness as we are.

Keywords

Computers, brain, understand, behaviourism, J. Searle, agents
Donald M. MacKay April198911Free to view
ArticleNew Ideas of Chaos in Physics

Abstract

Chaotic behaviour in physical systems is described and examples given. Some implications for the limits of scientific prediction in areas where this applies are discussed–especially in weather prediction. Its bearing on a reductionist approach to such areas, its possibly constructive uses and its relevance to the debates about physical determinism are explored briefly.

Keywords

Chaotic behaviour, physical systems, weather prediction, reductionist approach, physical determinism
J. T. HoughtonApril198911Free to view
ArticleCapra on Eastern Mysticism and Modern Physics: A Critique

Abstract

Fritjof Capra’s The Tao of Physics, one of several popularizations paralleling Eastern mysticism and modern physics, is thoroughly critiqued and his implicit claim that science validates an Eastern mystical world view is challenged.

Keywords

Fritjof Capra’s The Tao of Physics, Eastern mysticism, modern physics, quantum mechanics, relativity
Robert K. Clifton Marilyn G. RegehrApril198911Free to view
Book reviewScience and CreationJohn Polkinghorne (C. A. Russell)April198911Free to view
Book reviewThe Bible in The British MuseumT. C. Mitchell (D. J. Wiseman)April198911Free to view
Book reviewWater into Wine?Robert A. H. Larmer (Gordon E. Barnes)April198911Free to view
Book reviewThe Primeval UniverseJayant V. Narlikar (R. L. F. Boyd)April198911Free to view
Book reviewIdeas of Human NatureRoger Trigg (Paul Helm)April198911Free to view
Book reviewBeing and RelationCarver Yu (John H. Chamberlayne) April198911Free to view
Book reviewManufacturing HumansD. Gareth Jones (Barrie Britton)April198911Free to view
Book reviewIn The Name of EugenicsDaniel J. Kevles (Caroline Berry)April198911Free to view
Book reviewMedicine in CrisisIan L. Brown and Nigel M. de S. Cameron (eds.) (R. K. M. Sanders) April198911Free to view
Book reviewDilemmasR. Higginson (E. C. Lucas)April198911Free to view
Book reviewThe Open Mind and Other EssaysDonald M. MacKay (Richard H. Bube)April198911Free to view
Book reviewEcological ImperialismAlfred W. Crosby (J. H. Paterson)April198911Free to view
Book reviewThe Idea of PrehistoryGlyn Daniel and Colin Renfrew (Norma Emerton) April198911Free to view